Friday, March 19, 2021

Range Bag

 
Shooter with Remington Model 597 Rifle (ca 2019)
photograph by
Noah Wulf

Several years ago, Shotgun News had an article about what you need to carry in your range bag to have a successful time of shooting.

Now for folks that aren't familiar with shooting, a range bag is ... a bag to hold your stuff for going to the range.
 
The Bag
Almost any bag will work as a range bag, as long as it is big enough to carry your stuff.

Needless to say, a bag with internal and external pockets would make it easier to organize your stuff, and one with a strap easier to carry.

Next or maybe first, you need safety equipment, hearing and eye protection.

The article recommended carrying quality earplugs in a ziplock baggie, so you have some if you forget your dedicated ear muffs, and you can hand these out to friends, if needed.
 
Mr. David M. Fortier recommends getting ear muffs with the highest level of NRR , noise reduction rating. The author cautions some popular electronic ear muffs only have a NRR of 19 to 22 decibels, while a good set of ear muffs will have a NRR of over 30 dbs.

The author suggest everyone wear eye protection. For folks wearing glasses, he suggests having prescription safety glasses made to protect your eyes.

Be warned, about your sight and hearing, "Once you lose it, it's gone forever."
Third, is a bunch of stuff:
 
* stapler with staples, JT-21M by Arrow was recommended in the article,
 
* Small 3-foot tape measure or a flexible rule to measure your shot groups.
 
* Writing utensils like a pen, pencil, and a sharpie, to mark targets, record data, and ... sign autographs.
 
* Small notebook to record data

* Shot Timmer

and, ...

* Spotting Scope

Next on the list, from the article, is a small tool kit that has weapon specific tools, like a front sight tool or combination tool. Another set of recommended tools was a set of wrenches, Allen, Torx, and flat bits with a bit driver. The recommendation for wrenches also includes a small adjustable wrench or a set of individual wrenches in SAE and metric. Another recommendation for a small tool kit is a set of punches and a small hammer. The author had a warning about not getting a big hammer because it adds weight to your bag. The last two recommendations are a steel cleaning rood, if you shoot steel case ammunition through an AR-15 series rifle and spare batteries for your shot timer, optics, and anything else that requires batteries to function.
 
Personally, the author also suggests having a small bottle of lubricant and that's it for a cleaning kit. I personally think you should carry a sectioned cleaning rod with patches and a bore brush, in your range bag. The rod, brush, and patches will allow you to clean the firearm's barrel, if you happen to trip, plunging your firearm into the dirt, mud, or water.
 
Fifth, the author recommends carrying so-called snivel gear, like sunscreen and bug spray, water and a snack in your bag with a light rain jacket, hat and gloves in your vehicle. I would add a light jacket or hoodie to the list.
 
Next is a chronograph. This device measures the velocity of your bullets as you shoot. It is handy for handloaders and folks looking for more information about how their firearm and ammunition work together.

Seventh is medical supplies.The author suggested two kits, a booboo kit and a blow-out kit. A booboo kit has band-aids for skinned knuckles, triple antibiotic, and ... the everyday first-aid kit.

The blow-out kit is for those catastrophic injuries from being shot, having a firearm malfunction and blowup, ... You know, a touniquit, packing gauze, and all the other things that Soldiers carry to save a life.

Oooh, ...

The author also suggested a charged cellphone to call for help.

Almost lastly, the author suggest the self-evident for your range bag, ... That's right, Targets. Not any old target, but proper targets for your firearm.
 
Mr. Fortier suggest getting targets that are big enough and well defined for proper indexing, being able to see your sight on the target. He also warns against getting targets that are too big because your aiming point can shift around.

Lastly, the author suggest bring a friend and have fun.

Link:
Shotgun News - Building the Perfect Range Bag: Having the Right Gear can Save the Day by David M. Fortier
 

Monday, January 25, 2021

Laptop Friendly Survival Library, November 6, 2001

 Dear Preppers and Survivalists,
File:XO laptop specs.jpg
photograph by
One Laptop per Child

 


LAPTOP FRIENDLY DISASTER SURVIVAL LIBRARY  (Version 11/6/01)
Keyword Searchable

Description: A one-document library of disaster survival info for individuals/families/neighborhoods. Designed to be placed on your laptop or palm pilot for rapid post-disaster access.  Keyword searchable (details below). Data is copied directly from sources you likely know ant trust, such as the Red Cross and the U. S. Army.  800 pages total, 3MB uncompressed.  

Advantages:  Once downloaded it doesn't require constant access to electricity or any Net access, takes much less time to search than a book, is free, floppy friendly, addresses broad range of disaster scenarios. Detailed instructions below.

Profuse thanks to you:  Just by having and understanding the use of this document, you may be making the world around you a safer place.  That is a contribution to the war effort, and for what it is worth I admire you for making it.  If you like this library, I hope you will make the further contribution of sharing it with your friends.   Send them to the online version at http://gamecamp.org/disaster.htm

Dave Ridley
Editor, Laptop Friendly Disaster Survival Library
gamecampone@aol.com

Contents:
All documents and books below copied exactly and often comprehensively from the sources listed
Johns Hopkins University Biowar FAQ    http://hopkins-biodefense.org
American Red Cross Disaster Tips (approx. 150 pages from http://redcross.org)
U. S. Constitution (Complete copy)
U. S. Army Survival Manual FM 21-76  (Complete copy.  From:  http://155.217.58.58/cgi-bin/atdl.dll/fm/21-76/toc.htm )
Oak Ridge National Laboratory:  "Nuclear War Survival Skills" (reprinted online at http://www.oism.org/nwss/s73p904.htm  )
Active First Aid    The official first aid manual for PARASOL EMT, an Australian EMT training firm.  Complete copy.
From:  http://www.parasolemt.com.au/Manual/afa.html    (Would welcome a more well-known source for first aid information, provided it's of equal quality and comprehensiveness:  E-mail me at gamecampone@aol.com to suggest)
The Defensive Use of Firearms   (From http://www.recguns.com)
(It's good data, but we'd welcome a more well-known source for civilian firearms info.  Email me at gamecampone@aol.com to suggest)
Fords MTM Preparedness Checklist   (Coming soon, awaiting permission) from: http://www.fords-mtm.com/preparechecklist.htm

Gun Safety Tips -  National Rifle Association:   http://www.mynra.com/frame.cfm?url=http://www.nrahq.org

U.S. Army Pistol Training Manual FM 23-35   http://www.adtdl.army.mil/cgi-bin/atdl.dll/fm/23-35/fm23-35.htm

A Guide to Organizing Neighborhoods  for Preparedness, Response and Recovery
   - Volunteer Center of Marin County, CA   http://www.preparenow.org/marin-g.html


_________

Report errors and suggest improvements:  Email the editor at gamecampone@aol.com

Data still sought:  Barter guide, better-known defensive firearms guide.  



Instructions:

Copy this document, disaster.rtf, preferably to your laptop, palm pilot or other battery-powered computer.   Then if you want a quick answer to a question (such as how to treat contaminated water or help a heat exhaustion victim) it can be right at your fingertips.  And you don't have to buy or carry 5 books to make it happen.

The data here is copied directly and comprehensively from the American Red Cross website, the U.S. Army Survival Manual and other generally respected sources. Whenever possible, I turned to well-known institutions such as these for the data, knowing you would trust them as I do.  For some types of info I had to turn to less-known sources, however.  In every case I list the source website so you can judge for yourself.  But I would welcome the chance to substitute or add data from more famous trusted institutions.  Please e-mail me at gamecampone@aol.com  if you can suggest a source or report any error on this site.

In order to keep the library from becoming too big to open all at once, it does not include illustrations.  The original documents from which it originated do, however, and the links are always listed.  In the future we may figure a way to include illustrations.



Keyword Searching

While you can certainly read this library starting at the beginning, using it without keyword searching it is like showering with a raincoat on!   But keyword searchability remains one of the most underutilized advantages of computer documents. So here are some instructions and tips on how to get the most out of the technique.  


1) Open this document (disaster.rtf) and scroll to the top of it.

2) Type Ctrl + F  ("propeller" + F if on a Mac) or click "Edit" then "Find" using your mouse. This activates "find" dialogue box.

3) Type in a keyword or phrase.  If you use a phrase, note that the computer will search out only phrases that exactly match what you type.

4) Hit enter.  You'll be taken to the first instance of that keyword or phrase.

5)  To go to the next instance of that keyword or phrase, hit F3.  If you don't find what you're looking for at first, keep hitting F3!  You can also change your keyword or phrase slightly.

If you type only the first letters of a word, you will still get taken to all words that contain those letters in that order.  Example:  if you type "blea" and then keep hitting F3 you will be taken, one at a time,  to all instances of the word bleach and the word bleat too!

If you type a phrase such as "water treatment" you will only be taken to exact instances of that phrase, unlike the Internet you will not be taken to articles that merely include both words.   

Keyword searching on most word processors can only be done "down," that's why you usually want to be at the top of the document when you start it.

Now that you're up to speed, try searching this document for any survival topic that interests you.   You can use it to assist any preparedness efforts you'd like to make If you don't find what you're after, please e-mail me at gamecampone@aol.com and let me know!  







 Johns Hopkins University Biowar FAQ  http://hopkins-biodefense.org  (Some data is from the CDC and other organizations linked to by Johns Hopkins)  


              Frequently Asked Questions
              Bioterrorism Concerns after September 11

              Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, public concern regarding a potential biological
              attack has heightened. The Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies received a
              steady stream of phone calls from the general public seeking more information about
              bioterrorism and ways to protect themselves. In response, the Center prepared the following
              "Frequently Asked Questions" (FAQ) fact sheet. Individuals may also want to contact their
              local health department and physician for additional information.

              Should I buy a gas mask?
              Should I have my own supply of antibiotics?
              Is it safe for me to drink water from the tap?
              What is smallpox?
              If smallpox is a potential threat to the U.S., why shouldn't we all get vaccinated?
              If I was vaccinated against smallpox before 1980, am I still protected?
              What is anthrax?
              Is anthrax contagious?
              What is the National Pharmaceutical Stockpile (NPS)?
              What can I do to protect myself and my family?
              What if my fear about bioterrorism is having a serious impact on my family and work life?

              Should I buy a gas mask?

              No. A mask would only protect you if you were wearing it at the exact moment a bioterrorist
              attack occurred. Unfortunately, a release of a biological agent is most likely to be done
              "covertly," that is, without anyone knowing it. That means you would not know ahead of time
              to put on your mask. To wear a mask continuously or "just in case" a bioterrorist attack
              occurs, is impractical, if not impossible.

              To work effectively, masks must be specially fitted to the wearer, and wearers must be
              trained in their use. This is usually done for the military and for workers in industries and
              laboratories who face routine exposure to chemicals and germs on the job. Gas masks
              purchased at an Army surplus store or off the internet carry no guarantees that they will
              work. In fact, one national chain of surplus stores provides the following statement: "(X) has
              been selling gas masks as a novelty item since 1948. We have never been able to
              warrant their effectiveness and we cannot do so at this time...We do not know what
              each type of gas mask we sell might or might not be effective against...We do not know
              the age of each gas mask..."

              In brief, no guarantees whatsoever are provided. More serious is the fact that the masks can
              be dangerous. There are reports of accidental suffocation when people have worn masks
              incorrectly, as happened to some Israeli civilians during the Persian Gulf War.

              return to top

              Should I have my own supply of antibiotics?

              There are a number of different germs a bioterrorist might use to carry out an attack. Many
              antibiotics are effective for a variety of diseases, but there is no antibiotic that is effective
              against all diseases. Thus, no single pill can protect against all types of biological weapon
              attacks. Keeping a supply of antibiotics on hand poses other problems because the antibiotics
              have a limited "shelf life" before they lose their strength.

              There is currently no justification for taking antibiotics. Also, it should be known that
              antibiotics can cause side effects. They should only be taken with medical supervision.

              return to top

              Is it safe for me to drink water from the tap?

              It would be extremely difficult for a bioterrorist to contaminate our drinking water supplies to
              cause widespread illness. There are two reasons. First of all, huge amounts of water are
              pumped daily from our reservoirs, most of which is used for industrial and other purposes;
              very little is actually consumed. Thus, anything deliberately put into the water supply would be
              greatly diluted. Secondly, water treatment facilities routinely filter the water supply and add
              chlorine in order to kill harmful germs.

              return to top

              What is smallpox?

              Smallpox is a disease caused by the Variola virus. Historically, 1 out of 3 people who
              contracted the disease died. The disease can spread from person to person. Transmission
              usually occurs only after the patient develops a fever and rash. Although there is no treatment
              for the disease, a vaccine against smallpox provides excellent protection and serves to stop
              the spread of the disease. While many vaccines must be given weeks or months before a
              person is exposed to infection, smallpox vaccine is different. It protects a person even when
              given 2 to 3 days after exposure to the disease and may prevent a fatal outcome even when
              given as late as 4 to 5 days after exposure.

              Smallpox was stamped out globally by 1980 and vaccination stopped everywhere in the world.
              However, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) maintain an emergency
              supply of smallpox vaccine. Currently there are 12-15 million doses in storage, and a program
              to produce more vaccine began a year ago. For more information on smallpox, click here.

              return to top

              If smallpox is a potential threat to the U.S., why shouldn't we all get
              vaccinated?

              The vaccine may cause serious side effects. In 1972, the U.S. decided to stop routinely
              vaccinating its citizens because many people were experiencing side effects, while they had
              almost no risk of getting smallpox. By 1972, the disease was present only in a few countries
              of Asia and Africa. Today, health authorities would only recommend vaccination if there was
              clear evidence that the disease had resurfaced and those in the U.S. were at risk of acquiring
              infection.

              Many people over age 30 have a vaccination scar. Vaccination consists of introducing the
              virus into the top layers of the skin. Over the following few days, a blister forms at the site of
              vaccination (usually the upper arm). The arm is sore, and there is fever. Very rarely, some
              people get a vaccine-related infection of the brain (about 1 case per 300,000 vaccinations);
              one fourth of these cases are fatal. Other potential negative effects of the vaccine are a
              severe skin reaction, spread of the vaccine virus (known as Vaccinia) to other parts of the
              body, and spread of the Vaccinia virus to other people.

              return to top

              If I was vaccinated against smallpox before 1980, am I still protected?

              Probably not. Vaccination has been shown to wear off in most people after 10 years but may
              last longer if the person has been successfully vaccinated on multiple occasions. If health
              authorities determine that you have been exposed to smallpox or are at risk of infection, they
              would recommend that you be re-vaccinated immediately.

              return to top

              What is Anthrax?

              Anthrax is a disease caused by bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. The form of the disease
              that health authorities are concerned that a bioterrorist attack might produce is inhalational
              anthrax. Inhalational anthrax occurs when a person breathes in anthrax spores. As early as a
              day or two after exposure or as late as seven weeks afterward, the spores begin to grow
              rapidly and the victim develops fever, has difficulty breathing and feels miserable. Death
              typically occurs within a few days after these symptoms if the person doesn't receive medical
              treatment. It is believed that antibiotics can stop the disease if they are taken at the time the
              anthrax spores begin to grow or very soon thereafter.

              In the event of a bioterrorist attack, health authorities would conduct a rapid investigation,
              determine the place and time of the release, and identify individuals who need antibiotics. The
              federal government has stockpiled antibiotics for large-scale distribution in the event of a
              bioterrorist attack. For more information on anthrax, click here.

              return to top

              Is anthrax contagious?

              No. Anthrax is not contagious. It does not spread from person to person. Healthy people who
              come into contact with persons sick with anthrax cannot acquire the disease.

              return to top

              What is the National Pharmaceutical Stockpile (NPS)?

              The NPS is a large reserve of antibiotics, chemical antidotes and other medical supplies set
              aside for emergencies. The CDC reports that it has the capacity to move these stockpiled
              materials to affected areas in the U.S. within 12 hours of notification. There are a number of
              different stockpiles, strategically located around the country. In addition to the medical
              supplies already set aside, the federal government has made agreements with drug
              manufacturers to make large amounts of additional emergency medicine. For more
              information on the NPS, go to http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/nps/default.htm.

              return to top

              What if my fear about bioterrorism is having a serious impact on my
              family and work life?

              Given the attacks upon civilians that took place on September 11, it is reasonable for citizens
              to feel anxious about their personal safety. Should your fear get to the point that it stops you
              from doing the things you would normally do in a day, it might be helpful to talk with someone.
              Your health care provider can make a referral if you do not already have someone in mind. In
              the wake of the attack on New York City, we have learned how helpful it has been to many
              New Yorkers to speak with a counselor or to go to a mental health center.

              return to top


below is from
http://hopkins-biodefense.org/cdc_anthrax.pdf

From the U. S. Government's Centers for Disease Control:

CDC Guidelines for State Health Departments
Revised October 14, 2001
I. Advice to the Public
How To Handle Anthrax and Other Biological Agent Threats
Many facilities in communities around the country have received anthrax threat letters. Most
were empty envelopes; some have contained powdery substances. The purpose of these
guidelines is to recommend procedures for handling such incidents.
DO NOT PANIC
1. Anthrax organisms can cause infection in the skin, gastrointestinal system, or the
lungs. To do, so the organism must be rubbed into abraded skin, swallowed, or
inhaled as a fine, aerosolized mist. Disease can be prevented after exposure to the
anthrax spores by early treatment with the appropriate antibiotics. Anthrax is not
spread from one person to another person.
2. For anthrax to be effective as a covert agent, it must be aerosolized into very small
particles. This is difficult to do, and requires a great deal of technical skill and
special equipment. If these small particles are inhaled, life-threatening lung
infection can occur, but prompt recognition and treatment are effective.
Suspicious Letter or Package
1. Do not shake or empty the contents of any suspicious envelope or package; DO NOT try to clean up
powders or fluids..
2. PLACE the envelope or package in a plastic bag or some other type of container to
prevent leakage of contents.
3. If you do not have any container, then COVER the envelope or package with anything
(e.g., clothing, paper, trash can, etc.) and do not remove this cover.
4. Then LEAVE the room and CLOSE the door, or section off the area to prevent others
from entering (i.e., keep others away).
5. WASH your hands with soap and water to prevent spreading any powder to your face or skin.
6. What to do next…
If you are at HOME, then report the incident to local police.
· If you are at WORK, then report the incident to local police, and notify your
· building security official or an available supervisor.
7. If possible, LIST all people who were in the room or area when this suspicious letter or package was
recognized. Give this list to both the local public health authorities and law enforcement
officials for follow-up investigations and advice.
8. Remove heavily contaminated clothing and place in a plastic bag that can be sealed; give the bag to
law enforcement personnel.
9. Shower with soap and water as soon as possible. Do not use bleach or disinfectant on your skin.



2
II. Advice to State and Local Health Officials
A. Asymptomatic patient WITHOUT known exposure
· Provide reassurance to the patient about the rarity of infection without known
exposure.
· Recommend the patient see a health care provider for further concerns and/or
diagnostic tests.
· Discourage use of nasal swabs for diagnosis of exposure. (Nasal swabs and blood
serum tests are used as an epidemiological tool to characterize an outbreak when there
is a known biologic agent.)
B. Asymptomatic patient WITH potential exposure
· Conduct an individual risk assessment and refer to a health care provider if post-exposure
prophylaxis is necessary.
· Decontaminating the patient, other than by washing with soap and water, is not
routinely recommended.
Post-exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) Recommendations
Initial therapy Duration
Adults (including pregnant
women 1,2 and
immmunocompromised)
Ciprofloxacin 500 mg po BID
Or
Doxycycline 100 mg po BID
60 days
Children 1,3 Ciprofloxacin 15-20 mg/kg po Q12 hrs 4
Or
Doxycycline 5 :
>8 yrs and >45 kg: 100 mg po BID
>8 yrs and # 45 kg: 2.2 mg/kg po BID
# 8 yrs: 2.2 mg/kg po BID
60 days
1. If susceptibility testing indicates susceptibility, as in the recent B. anthracis exposures in Florida, therapy
should be changed to oral amoxicillin for post-exposure prophylaxis to continue for 60 days.
2. Although tetracyclines are not recommended during pregnancy, their use may be indicated for life-threatening
illness. Adverse affects on developing teeth and bones are dose related, therefore, doxycycline might be used for
a short course of therapy (7-14 days) prior to the 6
th
month of gestation. Consult physician after the 6
th
month of
gestation for recommendations.
3. Use of tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in children has adverse effects. These risks must be weighed
carefully against the risk for developing life-threatening disease. If a release of B. anthracis is confirmed,
children should be treated initially with ciprofloxacin or doxycycline as prophylaxis but therapy should be
changed to oral amoxicillin 80 mg/kg of body mass per day divided every 8 hours (not to exceed 500 mg three
times daily) as soon as penicillin susceptibility of the organism has been confirmed.
4. Ciprofloxacin dose should not exceed 1 gram/day in children.
5. In 1991, the American Academy of Pediatrics amended their recommendation to allow treatment of young
children with tetracyclines for serious infections, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, for which doxycycline

3
may be indicated. Doxycycline is preferred for its twice-a-day dosing and low incidence of gastrointestinal side
effects.
6. Laboratory Response Network for Bioterrorism (LRN) is a collaborative partnership and multilevel system
designed to link state and local public health laboratories with advanced capacity clinical, military, veterinary,
agricultural, water and food-testing laboratories. The LRN operates as a network of laboratories (laboratory
levels designated A: hospital laboratories, B: state health laboratories, C: CDC laboratory, D: CDC and
USAMRIID) with progressively stringent levels of safety, containment and technical proficiency necessary to
perform the essential rule-out, rule-in, and referral functions required for agent identification. Network access
provides all public health laboratories with the means to accept and transfer specimens to appropriate facilities
where definitive testing can be undertaken. This facilitates early detection and suspect-level identification at the
local clinical laboratory level, which is subsequently supported by more advanced capacity for rapid
presumptive and confirmatory-level testing at state and large metropolitan public health laboratories. Further
definitive characterization or highly specialized testing is provided by CDC, which serves as the national public
health reference laboratory for major threat agents. The LRN consists of over 100 core and advanced capacity
public health laboratories. In order to maintain network continuity, the respective State Public Health Laboratory
Directors serve as the designated notification hub for maintaining operational integrity at the local level as well
as communicating with CDC and FBI as appropriate.
Issues regarding the clinical use of threat agent assays: All of the biodetection assays and reagents utilized in
the LRN, are intended for use in public health surveillance and the unique need related to the public health
emergency, civilian biodefense and national security interests. These reagents are neither manufactured for
commercial distribution nor provided for use in research purposes. An individual biodetection assay (and
associated reagents) used in the standardized testing algorithm within the LRN should not be used to support a
clinical diagnosis nor initiate a medical intervention without confirmation of the laboratory-based identification
by another medically established diagnostic product or procedure.
C. Patients with symptoms compatible with anthrax
· Confirm the diagnosis by obtaining the appropriate laboratory specimens based on the
clinical form of anthrax that is suspected (inhalational, gastrointestinal, or cutaneous).
- Inhalational anthrax: blood, CSF (if meningeal signs are present); chest X-ray
- Gastrointestinal anthrax: blood
- Cutaneous anthrax: vesicular fluid and blood
Evaluation of possible anthrax infection for individuals not connected with the AMI incident
in Florida should be performed through standard laboratory tests, following the Laboratory
Response Network (LRN 6 ) Level A Clinical Guidelines for rule-out and presumptive testing
http://www.bt.cdc.gov (follow the link for Resources: Agents/Diseases - Bacillus anthracis)
a. Presumptive identification criteria (level A LRN laboratory)
1. From clinical samples, such as blood, CSF, or skin lesion (vesicular fluid
or eschar) material: encapsulated Gram-positive rods
2. From growth on sheep blood agar: large Gram-positive rods
3. Non-motile
4. Non-hemolytic on sheep blood agar
Additional LRN level B laboratory criteria for confirmation of B. anthracis are available
through State Public Health Laboratories and involve:
b. Confirmatory criteria for identification of B. anthracis (level B LRN laboratory)
1. Capsule production (visualization of capsule), and
2. Lysis by gamma-phage, or

4
3. Direct fluorescent antibody assays (DFA)
Rapid screening assays, such as nucleic acid signatures and antigen detection, which can be
performed directly on clinical specimens and environmental samples, are being made
available for restricted use in LRN B and C level laboratories.
III. Signs and Symptoms of Anthrax Infection
Inhalational anthrax: A brief prodrome resembling a viral respiratory illness followed by
development of hypoxia and dyspnea, with radiographic evidence of mediastinal widening.
This, the most lethal, form of anthrax results from inspiration of 8,000-40,000 spores of B.
anthracis. The incubation of inhalational anthrax among humans is unclear, but it is reported
to range between 1 and 7 days possibly ranging up to 60 days. Host factors, dose of exposure
and chemoprophylaxis may play a role. Initial symptoms include sore throat, mild fever,
muscle aches and malaise. These may progress to respiratory failure and shock. Meningitis
frequently develops. Case-fatality estimates for inhalational anthrax are based on incomplete
information regarding exposed populations and infected populations in the few case series
and studies that have been published. However, case-fatality is extremely high, even with all
possible supportive care including appropriate antibiotics. Records of industrially acquired
inhalational anthrax in the United Kingdom before antibiotics were available reveal that 97%
of cases were fatal. With antibiotic treatment the fatality rate is estimated to be at least 75%.
Estimates of the impact of the delay in post-exposure prophylaxis or treatment on survival are
not known.
Gastrointestinal anthrax: Severe abdominal distress followed by fever and signs of
septicemia. This form of anthrax usually follows the consumption of raw or undercooked
contaminated meat and is considered to have an incubation period of 1-7 days. An
oropharyngeal and an abdominal form of the disease have been described in this category.
Involvement of the pharynx is usually characterized by lesions at the base of the tongue, sore
throat, dysphagia, fever, and regional lymphadenopathy. Lower bowel inflammation usually
causes nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting and fever, followed by abdominal pain, vomiting
blood, and bloody diarrhea. The case-fatality rate is estimated to be 25-60%, the effect of
early antibiotic treatment on that case-fatality rate is not defined.
Cutaneous anthrax: A skin lesion evolving from a papule, through a vesicular stage, to a
depressed black eschar. This is the most common naturally occurring type of infection
(>95%) and usually occurs after skin contact with contaminated meat, wool, hides, or leather
from infected animals. Incubation period ranges from 1-12 days. Skin infection begins as a
small papule, progresses to a vesicle in 1-2 days followed by a necrotic ulcer. The lesion is
usually painless, but patients also may have fever, malaise, headache and regional
lymphadenopathy. The case fatality rate for cutaneous anthrax is 20% without, and less than
1% with, antibiotic treatment.
IV. Advice to Laboratory Personnel
These guidelines provide background information and guidance to clinical laboratory

5
personnel in recognizing Bacillus anthracis in a clinical specimen. They are NOT intended to
provide training for laboratory identification of B. anthracis. Clinical lab personnel will most
likely be the first ones to perform preliminary testing on clinical specimens from patients who
may have been intentionally exposed to the organism, and will play a critical role in
facilitating rapid identification of B. anthracis. Laboratory confirmation of B. anthracis
should be performed at the State Public Health Laboratory.
Any suspected isolate of B. anthracis must be reported to the State Public Health
Laboratory IMMEDIATELY. The State Public Health Laboratory is available for
consultation or testing 24 hours per day and can be reached through the Department of
Health Communicable Disease Epidemiology 24-hour emergency number. Following an
appropriate consultation with the State Public Health Lab regarding a suspected isolate
of B. anthracis, communication should then be established with the local FBI field office
for possible law enforcement involvement.
A. Handling laboratory specimens (possible B. anthracis)
· Risk to lab personnel from handling clinical lab specimens with B. anthracis is low, but it
is important to minimize possible exposures to personnel as well as prevent contamination
of the lab. Standard lab practices are sufficient:
- Wear gloves and protective gowns when handling clinical specimens
- Wash immediately with soap and water if there is direct contact with a clinical or lab
specimen
- Avoid splashing or creating aerosols
- Perform lab tests in an annually certified Class II Biological Safety Cabinet; if that is
not possible, then use standard lab protective eyewear and a mask
- Blood cultures should be maintained in a closed system (blood culture bottles)
- Keep culture plates covered at all times; minimize exposure when extracting
specimens for testing
- Work on a smooth surface that can be cleaned easily and wipe with bleach regularly
· If lab or clinical specimen material is spilled or splashed onto lab personnel:
- Remove outer clothing carefully while still in the lab and place in a labeled, plastic
bag
- Remove rest of clothing in the locker room and place in a labeled, plastic bag
- Shower thoroughly with soap and water in the locker room
- Inform the supervisor and physician
· If exposure to contaminated sharps occurs:
- Follow standard reporting procedures for sharps exposures
- Thoroughly irrigate site with soap and DO NOT SCRUB AREA.
- Promptly begin prophylaxis for cutaneous anthrax
- Recommended treatment for cutaneous exposure: prophylaxis with ciprofloxacin
500 mg by mouth twice a day for 14 days or Doxycycline 100 mg by mouth twice
a day for 14 days.
- Notify the State Department of Health (SDOH) and the State Public Health
Laboratory (SPHL)


6
B. Role of the clinical laboratory
· Perform laboratory tests for to rule out identification of B. anthracis on clinical specimens
· Raise your index of suspicion for B. anthracis when the clinical picture (provided by the
clinician) involves a rapidly progressive respiratory illness of unknown cause in a
previously healthy person
· Refer any suspected isolates one is unable to rule out IMMEDIATELY to the SDOH and
SPHL
C. Presumptive identification of Bacillus anthracis
· Direct smears from clinical specimens
- Encapsulated broad rods in short chains, 2-4 cells. Gram stain can demonstrate
clear zones (capsule) around rods. An India ink stain should be used to further
visualize the capsule microscopically.
- B. anthracis will not usually be present in clinical specimens until late in the
course of the disease
· Smears from sheep blood agar or other routine nutrient medium
- Non-encapsulated broad rods in long chains
- When grown on nutrient agar in presence of 5% CO2 or other basal media
supplemented with 0.8% sodium bicarbonate, virulent strains will yield heavily
encapsulated rods (Note: this procedure is performed in Level B laboratories).
Gram stain morphology of B. anthracis
· Broad, gram-positive rod: 1-1.5 x 3-5 :
· Oval, central to subterminal spores: 1 x 1.5 : with no significant swelling of cell
· Spores usually NOT present in clinical specimens unless exposed to atmospheric O2
Colonial characteristics of B. anthracis
· Bacillus anthracis can be isolated primarily from blood, sputum, CSF, vesicular
fluid or eschar, and stool (if gastrointestinal anthrax).
· After incubation on a blood agar plate for 15-24 hours at 35-37 o C, well isolated
colonies are 2-5 mm in diameter; heavily inoculated areas may show growth in 6-8
hours
· Gray-white, flat or slightly convex colonies are irregularly round, with edges that
slightly undulate, and have “ground glass” appearance
· Often have comma-shaped protrusions from colony edge (“Medusa head” colonies)
· Tenacious consistency (when teased with a loop, the growth will stand up like a
beaten egg white)
· Non-hemolytic (weak hemolysis may be observed under areas of confluent growth in
aging cultures and should NOT be confused with real $-hemolysis)
· Will not grow on MacConkey agar
· Non-motile
Presumptive identification key for Bacillus anthracis
· Non-hemolytic

7
· Non-motile
· Encapsulated (requires India ink to visualize the capsule)
· Gram-positive, spore-forming rod
If B. anthracis is suspected
· The health care provider, local law enforcement, and the local and State DOH should
be notified immediately
· Do not perform further tests once you have reason to suspect B. anthracis. The
specimen should be transported to the DOH as directed (see Packaging and
Transporting Protocol)
· Level B laboratories (State DOH) will perform the following presumptive and
confirmatory tests:
-lysis by gamma phage
-capsule detection (by DFA)
-detection of cell-wall polysaccharide antigen by DFA
D. Decontamination
· Effective sporicidal decontamination solutions approved for hospital use
· Commercially-available bleach, 0.5% hypochlorite (a 1:10 dilution of household
bleach); may be corrosive to some surfaces
· Rinse off the concentrated bleach to avoid its caustic effects
Surfaces and non-sterilizable equipment
· Work surfaces should be wiped before and after use with a sporicidal decontamination
solution
· Routinely clean non-sterilizable equipment with a decontamination solution
Contaminated instruments (pipettes, needles, loops, micro slides)
· Soak in a decontamination solution until autoclaving is performed
Accidental spills of material known or suspected to be contaminated with B. anthracis
For contamination involving fresh clinical samples:
· Flood with a decontamination solution
· Soak five minutes before cleaning up
· For contamination involving lab samples, such as culture plates or blood cultures, or
spills occurring in areas that are below room temperature:
· Gently cover spill, then liberally apply decontamination solution
· Soak for one hour before cleaning up
· Any materials soiled during the clean-up must be autoclaved or incinerated
E. Disposal
· Incinerate or steam-sterilize cultures, infected material, and suspect material

8
F. Packaging and transporting protocol
Packaging and labeling specimens is the same as for any infectious substance
· If the specimen is a dry powder or paper material, place it in a plastic zip-lock bag,
and place biohazard label (see diagram)
· If the specimen is a clinical specimen, place biohazard label on the specimen
receptacle, wrap the receptacle with an absorbent material (see diagram)
· Place the bag or specimen receptacle into a leak-proof container with a tight cover that
is labeled “biohazard.”
· Place this container into a second leak proof container with a tight cover that is
labeled “biohazard.” The size of the second container should be no larger than a one-gallon
paint can.
· For a clinical specimen, an ice pack (not ice) should be placed in the second container
to keep the specimen cold
· If the specimen is not a clinical specimen, but is paper or powder, the ice pack should
be omitted
· Place the second container into a third leak proof container with a tight cover that is
labeled “biohazard.” The third container should be no larger than a five-gallon paint
can.
· Both containers should meet state and federal regulations for transport of hazardous
material, and be properly labeled.
Transporting specimens to the DOH Public Health Lab
· Will be coordinated with the DOH Public Health Lab at [state telephone number]
· Local FBI personnel may be utilized to transport specimens if bioterrorism is

9
suspected
· In cases where the specimen is shipped by commercial carrier, ship according to State
and Federal shipping regulations
G. Helpful web sites
· Biosafety in the Microbiology Lab www.cdc.gov/od/ohs
· Guideline for Isolation Precautions www.cdc.gov/ncidod/hip
· Public Health Image Library www.phil.cdc.gov
· World Health Organization (WHO): Guidelines for the Surveillance and Control of
Anthrax in Humans and Animals
www.who.int/emc-documents/zoonoses/whoemczdi986c.html
H. References for laboratory guidelines
· Laboratory protocols for clinical Laboratories for the identification of Bacillus
anthracis. CDC BT public web site: www.bt.cdc.gov
· Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, Barlett JG, Ascher MS, et al. Anthrax as a biological
weapon: Medical and public health management (consensus statement). JAMA, May
12, 1999;281(18):1735-1745.
· No authors listed. Biological warfare and terrorism: the military and public health
response. U.S. Army, Public Health Training Network, Centers for Disease Control,
Food and Drug Administration, Satellite broadcast, September 21-23, 1999.


End of data from Johns Hopkins University  http://hopkins-biodefense.org
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American Red Cross Disaster Tips (approx. 150 pages from http://redcross.org)


                        Safety Information for Short-Term Power Outages or "Rolling Blackouts"

                        What is a "Rolling Blackout?"
                        A rolling blackout occurs when a power company turns off electricity to selected areas to save
                        power. The areas are selected using sophisticated computer programs and models. The
                        blackouts are typically for one hour, then the power is restored and another area is turned off.
                        Hospitals, airport control towers, police stations, and fire departments are often exempt from
                        these rolling blackouts. These blackouts usually occur during peak energy usage times,
                        usually between 4:00 p.m. and 7:00 p.m. on weekdays, but they can happen at any time of day.
                        Blackouts may affect the same area more than once a day, and may exceed an hour's duration.

                        How Do I Find Out if My Area Will Have a Rolling Blackout?
                        Listen to local television, radio, and check the web site of your power company. Usually, rolling
                        blackouts occur when power usage increases, especially during hot weather when many
                        people are using air conditioning to keep cool. Power companies try to give a warning when
                        they will turn off power to an area, but they can not always do that.

                        Top Safety Tips for a Blackout

                             Only use a flashlight for emergency lighting. Never use candles!
                             Turn off electrical equipment you were using when the power went out.
                             Avoid opening the refrigerator and freezer.
                             Do not run a generator inside a home or garage.
                             If you use a generator, connect the equipment you want to power directly to the outlets
                             on the generator. Do not connect a generator to a home's electrical system.
                             Listen to local radio and television for updated information.

                        How Can I Prepare Before a Blackout Happens?
                        Assemble essential supplies, including:

                             Flashlight
                             Batteries
                             Portable radio
                             at least one gallon of water
                             a small supply of food.
                             Due to the extreme risk of fire, do not use candles during a power outage.

                        If you have space in your refrigerator or freezer, consider filling plastic containers with water,
                        leaving about an inch of space inside each one. (Remember, water expands as it freezes, so it
                        is important to leave room in the container for the expanded water). Place the containers in the
                        refrigerator and freezer. This chilled or frozen water will help keep food cold if the power goes
                        out, by displacing air that can warm up quickly with water or ice that keeps cold for several
                        hours without additional refrigeration.

                        If you use medication that requires refrigeration, most can be kept in a closed refrigerator for
                        several hours without a problem. If unsure, check with your physician or pharmacist.

                        If you use a computer, keep files and operating systems backed up regularly. Consider buying
                        extra batteries and a power converter if you use a laptop computer. A power converter allows
                        most laptops (12 volts or less) to be operated from the cigarette lighter of a vehicle. Also, turn off
                        all computers, monitors, printers, copiers, scanners and other devices when they're not being
                        used. That way, if the power goes out, this equipment will have already been safely shut down.
                        Get a high quality surge protector for all of your computer equipment. If you use the computer a
                        lot, such as for a home business, consider purchasing and installing an uninterruptable power
                        supply (UPS). Consult with your local computer equipment dealer about available equipment
                        and costs.

                        If you have an electric garage door opener, find out where the manual release lever is located
                        and learn how to operate it. Sometimes garage doors can be heavy, so get help to lift it. If you
                        regularly use the garage as the primary means of entering your home upon return from work,
                        be sure to keep a key to your house with you, in case the garage door will not open.

                        If you have a telephone instrument or system at home or at work that requires electricity to work
                        (such as a cordless phone or answering machine), plan for alternate communication, including
                        having a standard telephone handset, cellular telephone, radio, or pager. Remember, too, that
                        some voice mail systems and remote dial-up servers for computer networks may not operate
                        when the power is out where these systems are located. So even if you have power, your
                        access to remote technology may be interrupted if the power that serves those areas is
                        disrupted. Check with remote service providers to see if they have backup power systems, and
                        how long those systems will operate.

                        Keep your car fuel tank at least half full because gas stations rely on electricity to power their
                        pumps.

                        Follow energy conservation measures to keep the use of electricity as low as possible, which
                        can help power company(ies) avoid imposing rolling blackouts.

                        Specific Information for People With Disabilities
                        If you use a battery-operated wheelchair, life-support system, or other power-dependent
                        equipment, call your power company before rolling blackouts happen. Many utility companies
                        keep a list and map of the locations of power-dependent customers in case of an emergency.
                        Ask them what alternatives are available in your area. Contact the customer service department
                        of your local utility company(ies) to learn if this service is available in your community.

                        If you use a motorized wheelchair or scooter, have an extra battery. A car battery also can be
                        used with a wheelchair but will not last as long as a wheelchair's deep-cycle battery. If
                        available, store a lightweight manual wheelchair for backup.

                        If you are Blind or have a visual disability, store a talking or Braille clock or large-print timepiece
                        with extra batteries.

                        If you are Deaf or have a hearing loss, consider getting a small portable battery-operated
                        television set. Emergency broadcasts may give information in American Sign Language (ASL)
                        or open captioning.

                        Using a Generator
                        If you are considering obtaining a generator, get advice from a licensed professional, such as
                        an electrician. Make sure the generator is listed with Underwriter's Laboratories or a similar
                        organization. Some municipalities, Air Quality Districts, or states have "air quality permit"
                        requirements. A licensed electrician will be able to give you more information on these matters.
                        Always plan to keep the generator outdoors -- never operate it inside, including the basement or
                        garage. Do not hook up a generator directly to your home's wiring. The safest thing to do is to
                        connect the equipment you want to power directly to the outlets on the generator. Connecting a
                        cord from the generator to a point on the permanent wiring system and backfeeding power to
                        your home is an unsafe method to supply a building during a power outage.

                        For more information about using generators safely, see the Generator fact sheet.

                        What Do I Do During A Blackout?
                        Turn off or disconnect any appliances, equipment (like air conditioners) or electronics you were
                        using when the power went out. When power comes back on, it may come back with
                        momentary "surges" or "spikes" that can damage equipment such as computers and motors in
                        appliances like the air conditioner, refrigerator, washer, or furnace.

                        Leave one light turned on so you'll know when your power returns.

                        Leave the doors of your refrigerator and freezer closed to keep your food as fresh as possible. If
                        you must eat food that was refrigerated or frozen, check it carefully for signs of spoilage. See the
                        Red Cross brochure called, "Help The Power Is Out" for more information.

                        Use the phone for emergencies only. Listening to a portable radio can provide the latest
                        information. Do not call 9-1-1 for information -- only call to report a life-threatening emergency.

                        Eliminate unnecessary travel, especially by car. Traffic signals will stop working during an
                        outage, creating traffic congestion.

                        Remember that equipment such as automated teller machines (ATMs) and elevators may not
                        work during a power outage.

                        If it is hot outside, take steps to remain cool. Move to the lowest level of your home, as cool air
                        falls. Wear lightweight, light-colored clothing. Drink plenty of water, even if you do not feel thirsty.
                        If the heat is intense and the power may be off for a long time, consider going to a movie
                        theater, shopping mall, or "cooling shelter" that may be opened in your community. Listen to
                        local radio or television for more information. Get more tips on the preparing for a heat wave.

                        Remember to provide plenty of fresh, cool water for your pets.

                        If it is cold outside, put on layers of warm clothing. Never burn charcoal for heating or cooking
                        indoors. Never use your oven as a source of heat. If the power may be out for a prolonged
                        period, plan to go to another location (relative, friend, or public facility) that has heat to keep
                        warm.

                        Energy Conservation Recommendations

                             To conserve power to help avoid a blackout, the power industry recommends:
                             In heating season, set the furnace thermostat at 68 degrees or lower. In cooling
                             season, set the thermostat at 78 degrees or higher. Consider installing a
                             programmable thermostat that you can set to have the furnace or air conditioning run
                             only when you are at home. Most power is used by heating and cooling, so adjusting the
                             temperatures on your thermostat is the biggest energy conservation measure you can
                             take.
                             Turn off lights and computers when not in use. This is especially true about computer
                             monitors - avoid using a "screen saver" and just simply turn the monitor off when you
                             won't be using the computer for a while. Turn the computer off completely each evening.
                             It is no longer true that computer equipment is damaged from turning it off and on.
                             Close windows when the heating or cooling system is on.
                             Caulk windows and doors to keep air from leaking, and replace old windows with new,
                             energy-efficient windows.
                             Clean or replace furnace and air-conditioner filters regularly.
                             When buying new appliances be sure to purchase energy-efficient models.
                             Wrap the water heater with an insulation jacket, available at most building supplies
                             retailers.
                             If you have to wash clothes, wash only full loads and clean the dryer's lint trap after each
                             use.
                             When using a dishwasher, wash full loads and use the "light" cycle. If possible, use the
                             "rinse only" cycle and turn off the "high temperature" rinse option. When the regular
                             wash cycle is done, just open the dishwasher door to allow the dishes to air dry.
                             Replace incandescent light bulbs with energy-efficient compact fluorescent lights.
                             Use one large light bulb rather than several smaller ones.

                        For More Information
                        If you would like more information about rolling blackouts and how to deal with them, contact
                        the power company that serves your area.


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY



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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > After a Disaster > Generators
                        Generators
                        (PDF File)

                        Purchasing a Generator
                        If you choose to buy a generator, make sure you get one that is listed with the Underwriter’s
                        Laboratory (UL) or Factory Mutual (FM). Look at the labels on lighting, appliances, and
                        equipment you plan to connect to the generator to determine the amount of power that will be
                        needed to operate the equipment.

                        For lighting, the wattage of the light bulb indicates the power needed. Appliances and
                        equipment usually have labels indicating power requirements on them. Choose a generator
                        that produces more power than will be drawn by the combination of lighting, appliances, and
                        equipment you plan to connect to the generator including the initial surge when it is turned on. If
                        your generator does not produce adequate power for all your needs, plan to stagger the
                        operating times for various equipment.

                        If you can not determine the amount of power that will be needed, ask an electrician to
                        determine that for you. (If your equipment draws more power than the generator can produce,
                        then you may blow a fuse on the generator or damage the connected equipment.)

                        Using a Generator
                        Follow the directions supplied with the generator. Under no circumstances should portable
                        generators be used indoors, including inside a garage. Adequate ventilation is necessary and
                        proper refueling practices, as described in the owner’s manual, must be followed.

                        It is a good idea to install one or more Carbon Monoxide (CO) alarms inside your home
                        (following manufacturer’s installation directions). If CO gas from the generator enters your
                        home and poses a health risk, the alarm will sound to warn you. Many home fires and deaths
                        from carbon monoxide poisoning have occurred from using a generator improperly.

                        Statistics from the Northeastern Ice Storm of January/February 1997 show that as many as 100
                        people were killed and 5,000 people injured by misuse of a generator at home.

                        Be sure to let the generator cool down before refueling Store fuel for the generator in an
                        approved safety can. Use the type of fuel recommended in the instructions or on the label on
                        the generator. Local laws may restrict the amount of fuel you may store, or the storage location.
                        Ask your local fire department for additional information about local regulations.

                        Store fuel for the generator out of doors in a locked shed or other protected area. Do not store
                        fuel in a garage, basement, or anywhere inside a home, as vapors can be released that may
                        cause illness and are a potential fire or explosion hazard.

                        Do not hook up a generator directly to your home’s wiring The safest thing to do is connect
                        the equipment you want to power directly to the outlets on the generator. There are several
                        reasons why hooking up a generator to your home’s electrical service is not a wise idea.

                        Home-use (non-industrial) generators do not supply enough amperage to supply sufficient
                        power for today’s homes (that is, to run a furnace, lighting, appliances, and other electronic
                        equipment). Unless your home’s power supply was installed with a disconnect to the main
                        power feeding lines, power you put into your home from a generator could backfeed into the
                        main line and cause problems for the electrical utility company, your neighbors, or yourself.

                        Backfeeding is supplying electrical power from a generator at the residence into the incoming
                        utility lines. This occurs when the necessary equipment used to isolate the generator from the
                        incoming power lines is not installed.

                        The 1999 National Electrical Code®, published by the National Fire Protection Association, is a
                        nationally recognized standard for safe electrical installations. The NEC® does permit an
                        interface between the normal power source (generally the electric utility) and an alternate power
                        source (such as a standby or portable generator) provided that the proper transfer equipment
                        that prevents backfeeding is used.

                        Simply connecting a cord from the generator to a point on the permanent wiring system and
                        backfeeding power is an unsafe method to supply a building during a utility outage. Improper
                        connection methods not only endanger the building occupants, but pose a serious hazard to
                        electric utility workers as well.

                        There are a number of products available that will provide either an automatic or manual
                        transfer between two power sources in a manner prescribed by the NEC®. When selecting a
                        product for this function, it should be one that has been evaluated for safe performance by a
                        nationally recognized testing organization such as Underwriters Laboratories.

                        The product must be installed according to the NEC®, all applicable state and local codes, and
                        the manufacturer’s instructions. Homeowners should only attempt to install such products if
                        they have a thorough knowledge of safe electrical installation practices for this type of
                        equipment. Otherwise a qualified electrician should be contacted.

                        If you have additional questions, please consult a licensed electrician, your local fire
                        department, or your community’s building safety or engineering department.

                        This information was developed with technical advice from the National Fire Protection
                        Association (publisher of the National Electric Code®).


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY


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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Be Prepared > Children & Disasters
                        Children & Disasters

                        Find foreign language versions of this document

                        Children & Disasters   |   Youth Services   |   Educator's Information

                        Disasters may strike quickly and without warning. These events can be frightening for adults,
                        but they are traumatic for children if they don't know what to do.

                        During a disaster, your family may have to leave your home and daily routine. Children may
                        become anxious, confused, or frightened. It is important to give children guidance that will help
                        them reduce their fears.

                        Children and Their Response to Disaster
                        Children depend on daily routines: They wake up, eat breakfast, go to school, play with friends.
                        When emergencies or disasters interrupt this routine, children may become anxious.

                        In a disaster, they'll look to you and other adults for help. How you react to an emergency gives
                        them clues on how to act. If you react with alarm, a child may become more scared. They see
                        our fear as proof that the danger is real. If you seem overcome with a sense of loss, a child may
                        feel their losses more strongly.

                        Children's fears also may stem from their imagination, and you should take these feelings
                        seriously. A child who feels afraid is afraid. Your words and actions can provide reassurance.
                        When talking with your child, be sure to present a realistic picture that is both honest and
                        manageable.

                        Feelings of fear are healthy and natural for adults and children. But as an adult, you need to
                        keep control of the situation. When you're sure that danger has passed, concentrate on your
                        child's emotional needs by asking the child what's uppermost in his or her mind. Having
                        children participate in the family's recovery activities will help them feel that their life will return to
                        "normal." Your response during this time may have a lasting impact.

                        Be aware that after a disaster, children are most afraid that--

                             The event will happen again.
                             Someone will be injured or killed.
                             They will be separated from the family.
                             They will be left alone.

                        Advice to Parents:

                        Prepare for Disaster
                        You can create a Family Disaster Plan and practice it so that everyone will remember what to do
                        when a disaster does occur.

                        Contact your local emergency management or civil defense office, or your local Red Cross
                        chapter for materials that describe how your family can create a disaster plan. Everyone in the
                        household, including children, should play a part in the family's response and recovery efforts.

                        Teach your child how to recognize danger signals. Make sure your child knows what smoke
                        detectors, fire alarms and local community warning systems (horns, sirens) sound like.

                        Explain how to call for help. Teach your child how and when to call for help. Check the
                        telephone directory for local emergency phone numbers and post these phone numbers by all
                        telephones. If you live in a 9-1-1 service area, tell your child to call 9-1-1. Even very young
                        children can be taught how and when to call for emergency assistance.

                        Help your child memorize important family information. Children should memorize their family
                        name, address and phone number. They should also know where to meet in case of an
                        emergency. Some children may not be old enough to memorize the information. They could
                        carry a small index card that lists emergency information to give to an adult or babysitter.

                        After the Disaster: Time for Recovery
                        Immediately after the disaster, try to reduce your child's fear and anxiety.

                        Keep the family together. While you look for housing and assistance, you may want to leave
                        your children with relatives or friends. Instead, keep the family together as much as possible
                        and make children a part of what you are doing to get the family back on its feet. Children get
                        anxious, and they'll worry that their parents won't return.

                        Calmly and firmly explain the situation. As best as you can, tell children what you know about
                        the disaster. Explain what will happen next. For example, say, "Tonight, we will all stay together
                        in the shelter." Get down to the child's eye level and talk to him or her.

                        Encourage children to talk. Let children talk about the disaster and ask questions as much as
                        they want. Encourage children to describe what they're feeling. Listen to what they say. If
                        possible, include the entire family in the discussion.

                        Include children in recovery activities. Give children chores that are their responsibility. This will
                        help children feel they are part of the recovery. Having a task will help them understand that
                        everything will be all right.

                        You can help children cope by understanding what causes their anxieties and fears. Reassure
                        them with firmness and love. Your children will realize that life will eventually return to normal. If
                        a child does not respond to the above suggestions, seek help from a mental health specialist
                        or a member of the clergy.

                        For a complete list of print children's materials available from the American Red Cross,
                        please visit the Publications section of our site.

                        The text on this page is in the public domain. We request that attribution to this information be
                        given as follows: From "Helping Children Cope With Disaster." developed by the Federal
                        Emergency Management Agency and the American Red Cross.


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY

below is from red cross http://www.redcross.org/pubs/dspubs/genprep.html

Recommended Emergency Supplies for Schools

(Drawn from lists created by the CA Senate Select Committee on the Northridge
Earthquake, Task Force on Education, August 1994)

Table of Contents:

     Introduction
     Individual kits
     Recommended Supplies
          For classroom kits
          For the whole school
     Supplies for Search & Rescue

For additional information, return to the Masters of Disaster main page.

Introduction
What to store: Begin with an analysis of the hazards of the area. Is your school threatened by tornadoes?
Earthquakes? Is emergency assistance close at hand or would you have to wait for help if the entire
community has been impacted? Do you think you will need tools for clearing debris? Remember that any
school in the country could be locked down due to an intruder or gunfire in the area, so all schools should be
prepared to have their students stuck inside the building for many hours. Similarly, all schools face the
potential of a hazardous materials spill nearby, requiring the school to shelter-in-place with doors and
windows closed and heating systems off. Adjust the supplies for extreme heat or cold temperatures. If your
plan includes Search & Rescue teams for light search and rescue following an earthquake, tornado or other
damaging event, stock supplies for the number of teams assigned.

Budget: Adjust the list, prioritizing for limited budget and storage space, if necessary. Develop a plan to phase
in the supplies. Contact local service clubs and vendors for assistance.

How much to store: Make some planning assumptions. Do most of your students' families live nearby or do
some of them commute long distances? Some schools could be cut off for days if a bridge or the main
highway is blocked. If you determine that most of your students could be picked up in most emergencies
within a day, then begin by stocking supplies for one day. Some schools plan that half their student body will
be picked up by parents within one day, half the remainder within a day, and the remainder within another day;
these schools stock supplies for 100% for day one, 50% for day two, plus 25% for day three. Other schools
stock supplies for 3 days, the recommendation of many emergency management agencies. Remember to
factor in the number of staff and other adults who may be on campus.

Storage: Determine where to store emergency supplies. Every classroom should have some supplies and
there should be a cache of supplies for the whole school. Many schools in California and other states
threatened by earthquakes use outdoor storage, anticipating the possibility of having to care for students
outside the buildings. They use an existing building or a cargo container, also called a land-sea container,
purchased used and installed near the emergency assembly area. Schools with limited budgets and/or
temperature extremes may opt to store their supplies in various caches throughout the school facility, primarily
in locked closets or classrooms. Many schools stock supplies in (new) trash barrels on wheels. Do not store
water in the barrels because it may leak and destroy everything else. Make sure that there are keys to ensure
access to the supplies during an emergency, including access by programs such as day care and
after-school events. Plan an annual inventory, replacing water and other items with limited shelf life as
necessary.

Individual Kits
Some schools ask students to bring in their own kits, sometimes called "comfort kits." (These "comfort kits"
should not be confused with Red Cross "comfort kits" - consisting mostly of toiletries - to people who have
been affected by disasters.) Student-assembled "comfort kits" typically include a little food, some water, a
space blanket or large plastic trash bag, a non-toxic chemical emergency light stick and a letter or photograph
from home. These kits can be helpful, but require a great deal of time and supervision to assemble and check
when they are brought to school. Sometimes parents include perishable items by mistake, and some parents
do not send anything at all. The school will need a plan to make sure that each student has a kit. Vendors sell
expensive individual kits as well, with much of the value in the packaging.

Recommended Supplies
The following lists address classroom kits, supplies for the whole school and Search & Rescue gear.

Classroom kit:

     Work gloves, leather
     Latex gloves, 6 pr.
     Safety goggles, 1 pr.
     Small first aid kit
     Pressure dressings, 3
     Crow bar
     Space blankets, 3
     Tarp or ground cover
     Student Accounting Forms, blank
     Student emergency cards
     Buddy classroom list
     Pens, paper
     Whistle
     Student activities
     Duct Tape, 2 rolls (for sealing doors & windows)
     Scissors
     Suitable container for supplies (5-gallon bucket or backpack)
     Drinking Water and cups - stored separately
     Toilet Supplies (large bucket, used as container for supplies and toilet when needed, with 100 plastic
     bags, toilet paper, and hand washing supplies)
     Portable Radio, batteries or other communication system
     Flashlight, batteries
     Push broom (if classroom includes wheel chairs)

Supplies for the Whole School: Water, First Aid, Sanitation, Tools, Food

     Water:
          ½ gallon per person per day times three days, with small paper cups
     First Aid:
          4 x 4" compress: 1000 per 500 students
          8 x 10" compress: 150 per 500 students
          Elastic bandage: 2-inch: 12 per campus 4-inch: 12 per campus
          Triangular bandage: 24 per campus
          Cardboard splints: 24 each, sm, med. Lg.
          Butterfly bandages: 50/campus
          Water in small sealed containers: 100 (for flushing wounds, etc.)
          Hydrogen peroxide: 10 pints/campus
          Bleach, 1 small bottle
          Plastic basket or wire basket stretchers or backboards: 1.5/100 students
          Scissors, paramedic: 4 per campus
          Tweezers: 3 assorted per campus
          Triage tags: 50 per 500 students
          Latex gloves: 100 per 500 students
          Oval eye patch: 50 per campus
          Tapes: 1" cloth: 50 rolls/campus; 2" cloth: 24 per campus
          Dust masks: 25/100 students
          Disposable blanket: 10 per 100 students
          First Aid Books 2 standard and 2 advanced per campus
          Space blankets: 1/student and staff
          Heavy duty rubber gloves, 4 pair
     Sanitation Supplies: (if not supplied in the classroom kits)
          1 toilet kit per 100 students/staff, to include:
          1 portable toilet, privacy shelter, 20 rolls toilet paper, 300 wet wipes, 300 plastic bags with ties,
          10 large plastic trash bags
          Soap and water, in addition to the wet wipes, is strongly advised.
     Tools per campus:
          3 rolls barrier tape 3" x 1000"
          Pry bar, Pick ax, Sledge hammer, Shovel, Pliers, Bolt cutters, Hammer, Screwdrivers, Utility
          knife, Broom Utility shut off wrench, 1/utility
     Other Supplies:
          3' x 6' folding tables, 3-4
          Chairs, 12-16
          Identification vests for staff, preferably color-coded per school plan
          Clipboards with Emergency Job Descriptions
          Office supplies: pens, paper, etc.
          Signs for Student Request and Release
          Alphabetical Dividers for Request Gate
          Copies of all necessary forms
          Cable to connect car battery for emergency power
     Food: The bulk of stored food should be easy to serve, non-perishable and not need refrigeration or
     heating after opening. Food is generally considered a low priority item, except for those with diabetes
     and certain other specific medical conditions. One method used by schools is to purchase food at the
     beginning of the school year and donate it to charity at the end of the year. A supply of granola bars,
     power bars, or similar food which is easy to distribute, may be helpful. Some schools store hard candy,
     primarily for its comfort value.

Search and Rescue Equipment
Adjust the number of S&R teams according to the size and complexity of the campus. Teams must consist of
a minimum of two persons. Training on how to do light search & rescue is required - Contact your local Fire
Department for information on whether such training is offered in your community.

     Protective gear per team member:
          Hard hat, OSHA approved
          Identification vest
          Gloves, leather work
          Goggles, safety
          Dust mask
          Flash light, extra batteries
          Duffel or tote bag to carry equipment
     Gear per S&R team:
          Back pack with First Aid supplies
          Master keys



red cross guide to business preparedness:   details at http://www.fema.gov/library/bizindex.htm



     Disaster Services --
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      Fires

      Floods

      Heat Waves

      Hurricanes

      Mudslides

      Thunderstorms

      Tornadoes

      Tsunami

      Volcanoes

      Wild Fires

      Winter Storms












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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > After a Disaster > Recovering Financially
                        Recovering Financially

                        A disaster can cause significant financial loss. Your apartment or home may be severely
                        damaged or destroyed. You may be forced to live in temporary housing. Income may be cut off
                        or significantly reduced. Important financial records could be destroyed. Take the time now to
                        assess your situation and ask questions. Start with your local Red Cross chapter. It can provide
                        assistance in a disaster and/or refer you to others in your community who could be of help.

                        First things first
                        Three steps to take immediately when disaster strikes.
                        Conduct an inventory
                        Making sure you get paid for what you've lost.
                        Reconstruct lost records
                        Resources you can use to establish fair value for your possessions.
                        Notify creditors and employers
                        Let the people you do business with know what has happened.
                        File an insurance claim
                        Tips for ensuring a fair and rapid settlement of your insurance claims.
                        Obtain loans and grants
                        Find out if you qualify for emergency financial assistance.
                        Avoid contractor rip-offs
                        Taking these steps can help prevent problems with contractors.
                        Reduce your tax bite
                        Some losses qualify for tax reductions--here's how to find out about yours.

                        First things first
                        Take these steps immediately after a disaster strikes:

                           1.Make sure your residence is safe to enter. If it is, remove any valuables to a safe place.
                           2.Be aware of potential hazards--avoid these areas until you have a chance to stabilize
                             them. Make temporary repairs to prevent further damage, such as patching a roof,
                             boarding up windows, or tearing down a damaged chimney. Keep receipts of repairs,
                             since most insurance companies will pay for them. The Red Cross or other voluntary
                             organizations may assist in helping you obtain materials to make temporary home
                             repairs after a disaster.
                           3.Notify your insurance company of your loss and get advice about making emergency
                             repairs. Ask the insurance company if it will pay for living expenses, such as a motel,
                             food, and laundry, if you are unable to live in your home. It may give you a check up front.
                             Also find out if this payment for living expenses will reduce the amount you ultimately
                             receive for damage to your property or possessions.

                        Conduct an inventory
                        If you have insurance for renters or homeowners, you'll want to make sure the insurance
                        company pays you fairly for all covered property and possessions damaged or destroyed in the
                        disaster. To do that, you'll need to prove that a loss took place and confirm the value of that loss.
                        The following steps will help you give the company an accurate list of the damage:

                             Make a preliminary list of damaged property and the degree of damage to each item. If
                             possible, photograph or videotape the damage.
                             Check this list against any list of property and possessions you may have made before
                             the disaster occurred.
                             If you don't have a pre-disaster inventory list, make one from observation and memory
                             as soon as possible. To jog your memory for items you had before the disaster, you
                             might walk the aisles of your local discount or department store or leaf through a catalog
                             or the classified ads section of your local newspaper.
                             Review any surviving photographs or videos taken in and around your home.
                             Ask friends and family for photographs or videotapes they may have taken of your home.
                             Draw floor plans and sketches of your home's interior. Repeat this process in two or
                             three weeks. You're likely to remember additional items.
                             Collect all available receipts, canceled checks, credit card statements, and invoices to
                             prove the value of lost possessions, including big-ticket items such as antiques or
                             jewelry.
                             Don't consider your list to be final. You may remember additional items later.

                        Reconstruct lost records
                        Records are often lost or destroyed in a disaster. But you may need to reconstruct some of
                        those records if you plan to file an insurance claim, take a tax deduction for your loss, or apply
                        for government aid. Here are some tips for recreating financial records and determining the
                        value of your possessions:

                             Look through catalogs or want ads to establish a fair value for your damaged or
                             destroyed items. Insurance for renters or homeowners may pay only the actual cash
                             value for your possessions (replacement cost discounted for age or use).
                             Use a Blue Book (available at banks) or consult a car dealer to determine the current
                             value of vehicles. Get a copy of the escrow papers for your home from your real estate
                             agent, the title company, the escrow company, or the bank that handled the purchase.
                             Go to your county assessor for property tax records to determine the value of the land
                             versus the value of the building.
                             Contact lenders and contractors to determine the value of home improvements you have
                             made.
                             Check court records for the probate values of property you may have inherited.
                             File Form 4506, Request for Copy or Transcript of Tax Form, with the IRS to obtain
                             copies of previous federal income tax returns. A small fee may be charged for this
                             service.

                        Notify creditors and employers
                        You may not be able to get to work because of a disaster. Be sure to notify your employer.

                             Notify creditors as soon as possible about lost bills or difficulties in paying bills. Explain
                             the situation and try to negotiate an agreement to reduce payments or spread them out
                             over a longer period. Most creditors will probably be willing to do this, especially if they
                             have other customers affected by the same disaster.
                             Notify the utility company if your residence is unlivable or has been destroyed so they
                             can stop billing immediately. Often, a utility company will transfer service to a new
                             address and waive initial connection charges.

                        File an insurance claim
                        Whether you rent or own, the following tips may be helpful:

                             Gather together all policy numbers and insurance company telephone numbers.
                             Find out how the company wants to process claims. In the event of a widespread
                             disaster, the company may set up special procedures and send in extra personnel and
                             claims adjusters.
                             File claims as promptly as possible. Claims generally are settled in the order received,
                             although the most severe cases may receive the highest priority.
                             Erect an identifying sign on your property if destruction is widespread. Because it can be
                             difficult for insurance companies to identify your property, a sign with your name, street
                             number, insurance company, and a way for the company to reach you can speed up
                             your claim.
                             File a claim even if your home is not specifically covered for the type of disaster that
                             occurred. For example, a standard policy for homeowners will not cover structural
                             damage caused by an earthquake--but it often will cover fire, water, and other damage
                             resulting from an earthquake.

                        Work with claims adjusters
                        If losses are small, you only may be required to provide the insurance company with a simple
                        written estimate for the cost of repairs or replacement. More extensive losses usually are
                        handled by a claims adjuster. If that's the case, the following suggestions can help ensure that
                        the adjuster's estimate of damages is complete and accurate:

                             Provide the adjuster with your list of damages, but note in writing that it's only a partial
                             list. You may remember more later.
                             Fully explain all losses and be sure the explanations are written down by either you or
                             the adjuster.
                             Take notes of all conversations with adjusters and follow up with letters to the insurance
                             company confirming the conversations. This increases the chances for getting a fair
                             settlement, but it may also delay a settlement.
                             Compare notes with neighbors. What are their adjusters saying? Remember policies
                             and coverage vary.

                        These suggestions will cost you more and may cause a settlement delay:

                             Bring in additional adjusters if you're not satisfied with initial damage estimates. If
                             necessary, hire a structural engineer.
                             Consider using an independent claims adjuster if it is a special situation. These
                             professionals can spot claims that homeowners might overlook, especially if the claim
                             is complex or involves a lot of money. Generally, they charge 10% of a settlement. Use
                             the same care and caution in hiring a claims adjustor as you would in choosing any
                             other contractor.

                        Settle a claim

                             Use your list of damaged property and possessions to be sure the settlement offer is
                             fair.
                             Appeal an adjuster's settlement offer to higher company management if you feel it's
                             necessary. If that still isn't satisfactory, try settling through independent mediation or
                             arbitration.
                             Don't rush to settle with your insurance company. Don't accept settlement checks as
                             "final." You may need to file additional claims later. Keep your right to future payments
                             open until time limits set by your policy require a final settlement. Consider seeking
                             legal advice before signing any waiver that addresses accidents or mishaps other than
                             natural disasters.
                             Put your settlement money into short-term certificates of deposit or money market funds.
                             Don't invest the money in financial assets that could fluctuate in value, such as stocks or
                             mutual funds. You will need the money soon--all of it!

                        Obtain loans and grants
                        Although not meant to replace or duplicate insurance, numerous government, nonprofit, and
                        private loans and grants may be available following a disaster. Watch your TV or newspaper for
                        announcements of their availability. Program sources include:

                             The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
                             The Small Business Administration (despite the agency's name, homeowners or
                             owners of personal property may apply for an SBA disaster-relief loan)
                             Your local city or county government (loans or assistance such as property tax relief may
                             be available)
                             Private lenders
                             American Red Cross disaster relief
                             Other voluntary organizations

                        Avoid contractor rip-offs
                        Be extremely cautious about contractors you hire to repair or rebuild damaged property.
                        Unfortunately, a few dishonest contractors take advantage of people caught in the wake of a
                        disaster. Also, in cases where federal or state aid may be available, the agency involved may
                        require that an assessment of the damaged property be completed before any repairs are
                        made.

                             Try not to rush into starting repair work.
                             Get estimates from more than one licensed, bonded, reputable contractor. Don't grab
                             the first person who comes along. Call your local Better Business Bureau to check out a
                             contractor.
                             Find out what neighbors are paying for similar work.
                             Be wary of contractors claiming "I can get to you right away and do it cheap."
                             Write down the license plate number and driver's license number of someone offering
                             services.
                             Ask to see proof of the necessary contractor's licenses and building permits.
                             Make certain the contractor shows you a certificate of insurance covering liability and
                             workers' compensation--otherwise, you could be sued if a worker is injured while
                             working on your property.
                             Get a contract in writing. It should cover what is to be done, when work starts, cost and
                             payment schedules, and the quality of materials to be used.
                             Make sure repairs are done according to local building codes.
                             Be careful that your signature on a contractor's bid is not an authorization to begin work.
                             Don't pay more than 20% down for the contractor to begin work. Then pay periodically,
                             according to the progress of the work.
                             If the contractor insists on payment for materials up front, then go with him to buy them
                             or pay the supplier yourself.
                             Have the contractor sign a release of lien when the work is done and paid for; this will
                             prevent the contractor from making legal claims against your property in the event of a
                             dispute later.
                             Don't make final payment until the job is finished--and you are satisfied with it.
                             Be sure all work requiring city or county inspection is officially approved in writing before
                             making final payment to the contractor. You may even want a structural engineer to
                             double-check major repairs before you make a final payment.
                             Don't sign over an insurance settlement check to the contractor.

                        Reduce your tax bite You may be eligible for important tax refunds or deductions (called
                        casualty loss deductions) or other tax benefits that are available for any property or
                        possessions damaged or destroyed in a disaster.

                             Rules regarding casualty losses are complex. You may want to work with an advisor
                             such as a Certified Financial Planner® licensee, tax accountant, or certified Public
                             Accountant. These experts along with other information sources could help you be
                             aware of changes in tax laws and rules.
                             In general, you may deduct losses if the total amount of losses in one year is more than
                             $100 and more than 10% of your adjusted gross income.
                             You must be able to prove that a loss took place, verify its amount, establish that it was
                             due to a specific disaster, and prove that you own the damaged property or are liable for
                             it.
                             Keep in mind that some costs of documenting your loss, such as appraisals or
                             photographs, may be deductible.
                             You cannot take a deduction for property that has been paid for, or is eligible to be paid
                             for, by your insurance
                             Special casualty loss rules apply in a federally declared disaster area. For example, you
                             can amend your previous year's tax return to report current losses instead of waiting to
                             report the losses on your current year's return. This gives you a quick refund (generally
                             within 45 days) of taxes you've already paid. Also, tax filing deadlines and payment
                             schedules may be extended in a federal disaster area.

                        Take a deep breath
                        That is a lot of information to digest! You may not be able to do everything that is suggested.
                        That's OK--do what you can. Taking even limited action now will go a long way toward restoring
                        your financial health as fully and as quickly as possible after a disaster has occurred. For more
                        information, contact your local Red Cross or office of emergency management. They can
                        provide valuable information and assistance in the event of a disaster. The Red Cross and the
                        Federal Emergency Management Agency also have a brochure that gives you tips on how to
                        prepare financially before a disaster strikes. To find more information on the Internet, contact. . .
                        FEMA -- www.fema.gov
                        NEFE -- www.nefe.org

                        This information is made available through your local American Red Cross and the Federal
                        Emergency Management Agency. It is provided as a public service of the Red Cross and the
                        Public Education Center of the Denver-based National Endowment for Financial Education. All
                        Red Cross disaster relief is free of charge--a gift of the American people. The Federal
                        Emergency Management Agency provides assistance--principally low-cost loans--for disaster
                        recovery from Presidentially declared disasters. The National Endowment is an independent
                        non-profit educational organization dedicated to improving the financial well-being of
                        Americans.

                        CFP and CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER are federally registered service marks of the
                        Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards, Inc.


                        The original brochure was published by the American Red Cross, the Federal Emergency
                        Management Agency, and the National Endowment for Financial Education


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY




     Disaster Services --
      After a Disaster

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      Food Safety

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      Recovering
      Financially

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      Emergencies

      Earthquakes

      Fires

      Floods

      Heat Waves

      Hurricanes

      Mudslides

      Thunderstorms

      Tornadoes

      Tsunami

      Volcanoes

      Wild Fires

      > Winter Storms












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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > After a Disaster > Winter Storms
                        Preventing and Thawing Frozen Pipes
                        (PDF File)

                        Frozen Pipes   |   Winter Storms

                        Why pipe freezing is a problem
                        Water has a unique property in that it expands as it freezes. This expansion puts tremendous
                        pressure on whatever is containing it, including metal or plastic pipes. No matter the "strength"
                        of a container, expanding water can cause pipes to break. Pipes that freeze most frequently are
                        those that are exposed to severe cold, like outdoor hose bibs, swimming pool supply lines,
                        water sprinkler lines, and water supply pipes in unheated interior areas like basements and
                        crawl spaces, attics, garages, or kitchen cabinets. Also, pipes that run against exterior walls
                        that have little or no insulation are also subject to freezing.

                        Pipe freezing is a particular problem in warmer climates where pipes often run through
                        uninsulated or underinsulated attics or crawl spaces.

                        Preventing Frozen Pipes
                        Before the onset of cold weather, prevent freezing of these water supply lines and pipes by
                        following these recommendations:

                             Drain water from swimming pool and water sprinkler supply lines following
                             manufacturer's or installer's directions. Do not put antifreeze in these lines unless
                             directed. Antifreeze is environmentally harmful, and is dangerous to humans, pets,
                             wildlife, and landscaping.

                             Remove, drain, and carefully store hoses used outdoors. Close inside valves supplying
                             outdoor hose bibs. Open the outside hose taps to allow water to drain. Keep the outside
                             valve open so that any water remaining in the pipe can expand without causing the pipe
                             to break.

                             Check around the home for other areas where water supply lines are located and are in
                             unheated areas. Look in the basement, crawl space, attic, garage, and under kitchen
                             and bathroom cabinets. Both hot and cold water pipes in these areas should be
                             insulated. A hot water supply line can freeze just as a cold water supply line can freeze if
                             the water is not running through the pipe and the water temperature in the pipe is cold.

                             Consider installing specific products made to insulate water pipes like a "pipe sleeve"
                             or installing UL-listed "heat tape," "heat cable," or similar materials on exposed water
                             pipes. Many products are available at your local building supplies retailer. Pipes should
                             be carefully wrapped, with ends butted tightly and joints wrapped with tape. Follow
                             manufacturer's recommendations for installing and using these products. Newspaper
                             can provide some degree of insulation and protection to exposed pipes - even ¼" of
                             newspaper can provide significant protection in areas that usually do not have frequent
                             or prolonged temperatures below freezing.

                        During Cold Weather, Take Preventive Action

                             Keep garage doors closed if there are water supply lines in the garage.

                             Open kitchen and bathroom cabinet doors to allow warmer air to circulate around the
                             plumbing. Be sure to move any harmful cleaners and household chemicals up out of
                             the reach of children.

                             When the weather is very cold outside, let the cold water drip from the faucet served by
                             exposed pipes. Running water through the pipe - even at a trickle - helps prevent pipes
                             from freezing because the temperature of the water running through it is above freezing.

                             Keep the thermostat set to the same temperature both during the day and at night. By
                             temporarily suspending the use of lower nighttime temperatures, you may incur a higher
                             heating bill, but you can prevent a much more costly repair job if pipes freeze and burst.

                             If you will be going away during cold weather, leave the heat on in your home, set to a
                             temperature no lower than 55ºF.

                        To Thaw Frozen Pipes
                        If you turn on a faucet and only a trickle comes out, make sure your main water valve is turned
                        on. If so, suspect a frozen pipe. Locate the suspected frozen area of the water pipe. Likely
                        places include pipes running against exterior walls or where your water service enters your
                        home through the foundation.

                             Keep the faucet open. As you treat the frozen pipe and the frozen area begins to melt,
                             water will begin to flow through the frozen area. Running water through the pipe will help
                             melt more ice in the pipe.

                             Apply heat to the section of pipe using an electric heating pad wrapped around the pipe,
                             electric hair dryer, a portable space heater (kept away from flammable materials), or
                             wrapping pipes with towels soaked in hot water. Do not use a blowtorch, kerosene or
                             propane heater, charcoal stove, or other open flame device. Make sure a heating pad
                             does not come into contact with water. A blowtorch can make water in a frozen pipe boil
                             and cause the pipe to explode. All open flames in homes present a serious fire danger,
                             as well as a severe risk of exposure to lethal carbon monoxide.

                             Apply heat until full water pressure is restored. If you are unable to locate the frozen
                             area, if the frozen area is not accessible, or if you can not thaw the pipe, call a licensed
                             plumber.

                             Check all other faucets in your home to find out if you have additional frozen pipes. If one
                             pipe freezes, others may freeze, too.

                        Future Protection

                             Consider relocating exposed pipes to provide increased protection from freezing. Pipes
                             can be relocated by a professional if the home is remodeled.

                             Add insulation to attics, basements, and crawl spaces. Insulation will maintain higher
                             temperatures in these areas.

                        For more information, please contact a licensed plumber or building professional or your local
                        American Red Cross chapter.

                        Content derived from:

                             Federal Emergency Management Agency
                             Mississippi State University Extension Service
                             MH2 Technologies, Ltd.
                             Myplumber.com
                             State Farm Insurance Company
                             Vancouver, BC, Waterworks Department


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY

Fact Sheet:
Using A Chain Saw Safely
Here are some helpful tips on using a chain saw to clean up debris after a storm.
The chain saw is a time saving and efficient power tool. However, it can be unforgiving and lethal, causing
injury or death in the hands of a uninformed and unaware operator. It is not the chain saw causing the accidents or
injuries, but the environment in which they are used. (According to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety
Commission, there were more than 33,000 chain saw related injuries in 1998.)
***** Read your safety manual that came with your Chain Saw******
1. If you are going to help clear tree and wood debris, you should wear at least:
• A Helmet System (consisting of Head, Face and Hearing Protection),
• Cotton or leather gloves,
• Chain saw protective chaps or chain saw protective pants (UL Listed)
• A pair of chain saw protective work boots w/steel toes.
These are required by OSHA reg. 1910.266 for all employed chain saw operators.
These products can be found at your local chain saw dealer.
2. Make sure that your chain saw has these features, and that the features are working:
• Chain brake (manual or inertia)
• Chain catcher
• Working safety throttle switch
• Working on / off Switch
• Spark arrester
3. Make sure your chain saw carburetor is properly adjusted. (This should be done by a trained
servicing dealer.) A misadjusted carburetor will cause stalling or poor performance and could cause the
operator to be injured.
4. Fill a gas-powered chain saw when the engine is cool. If the saw is out of gas, let it cool 30 minutes before
refueling. Do not smoke when refueling the saw! And use a chain saw outdoors only.
5. Have several commercially sharpened saw chains to match your chain saw and bar. THIS IS VERY
IMPORTANT! You can immediately dull a chain saw chain by hitting the ground with the tip, or cutting
dirty wood, hitting a rock or nails. It is very tiring to cut with a dull chain and the extra pressure you apply to
the chain saw to cut faster will only increase your chance of an injury!

6. Look out for Hazards!
• Broken or hanging branches, attached vines, or a dead tree that is leaning. All of these hazards
can cause the chain saw operator to be injured.
• If you have to cut a dead tree, be very careful! The top could break off and kill you.
• If the tree is broken and under pressure, make sure you know which way the pressure is going.
If not sure, make small cuts to release some of the pressure before cutting up the section.
• Be careful of young trees that other trees have fallen on. They act like spring poles and may
propel the chain saw back into your leg. (Many professional loggers have been hurt in this manner.)
7. Felling a dangerous broken tree should be left to a professional cutter. A downed tree may weigh
several tons and easily injure or kill an unaware chain saw operator. More injuries occur during clean up after
a hurricane than during the storm.
8. Carry the chain saw with the engine stopped.
9. When bucking up (cutting) a downed tree, place a plastic wedge into the cut to keep your chain saw
from binding up. They are available at any chain saw dealer and sometime come packaged with the saw.
10. Never cut when tired or alone. Most woodcutting accidents occur late in the afternoon when most
people are pushing to finish up for the day. Always work with a partner but never around children or pets.
11. Use a chain saw from ground level only, not on a ladder or in a tree.
12. When felling a tree keep everyone at least “two tree lengths away”.
13. You should have a preplanned escape route at a 45 0 angle from the projected direction of a falling
tree. Make sure there is nothing that could trip or stop you from making a quick retreat.
14. Read your owner’s manual concerning kickback. To reduce the risk of kickback injury:
• Use a reduced kickback bar, low kickback chain and chain brake.
• Avoid contact of bar tip with any object.
• Hold the chain saw firmly with both hands.
• Do not over-reach.
• Do not cut above shoulder height.
• Check chain brake frequently.
• Follow sharpening and maintenance instruction for the chain saw.
15. When picking up heavy wood debris, get several helpers. Bend your knees and lift with your legs,
not your back. A 24" log may weigh over 100 lbs.
Cleaning up tree damage after a storm is a very demanding job. If you follow these basic tips you can avoid
injuries.
.. This information was provided courtesy of Gransfors Bruks, Inc., a manufacturer/supplier of
logging safety apparel and accessories, of Summerville SC, and is used with permission.



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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > After a Disaster > Food Safety
                        Food Safety in a Power Outage
                        (PDF File)

                        Food Safety   |   Guidelines

                        Sudden power outages can be frustrating and troublesome, especially when they are
                        prolonged. Perishable foods should not be held above 40 degrees for more than 2 hours. If a
                        power outage is 2 hours or less, you need not be concerned, but how do you save your food
                        when the refrigerator is out for longer times? Being prepared can help. By planning ahead, you
                        can save your perishables.

                        What do I need?

                             One or more coolers. Inexpensive styrofoam coolers can do an excellent job as well.
                             Shelf-stable foods, such as canned goods and powdered or boxed milk. These can be
                             eaten cold or heated on the grill.
                             A digital quick-response thermometer. A digital thermometer should be a necessity in
                             your kitchen anyway. With these thermometers you can quickly check the internal
                             temperatures of food for doneness and safety.

                        What to do...

                             Do not open the refrigerator or freezer. Tell your little ones not to open the door. An
                             unopened refrigerator will keep foods cold enough for a couple of hours at least. A
                             freezer that is half full will hold for up to 24 hours and a full freezer for 48 hours.
                             If it looks like the power outage will be for more than 2-4 hours, pack refrigerated milk,
                             dairy products, meats, fish, poultry, eggs, gravy, stuffing and left-overs into your cooler
                             surrounded by ice.
                             If it looks like the power outage will be prolonged, prepare a cooler with ice for your
                             freezer items.

                        Q’s and A’s
                        What should be discarded after a power outage? As soon as the power returns, check
                        temperatures. If the food in the freezer has ice crystals and is not above 40 degrees you can
                        refreeze. Perishable foods in the refrigerator should not be above 40 degrees F. for more than
                        two hours. Use this chart to see what has to be discarded and what can be kept.

                        What if I go to bed and the power is still not on? Before you go to bed, pack your perishables
                        into your coolers if you haven't already done so and put in as much ice as you can. Also, when
                        you go to bed, leave a bedroom light switched on. When the power goes back on, it will wake
                        you, so you can check the condition of your foods in the freezer.

                        What if the power goes out while I’m at work or out of the house and it has been more than a
                        few hours before I get home? Try to determine how long the power has been out. Check the
                        internal temperature of the food in your refrigerator with your quick-response thermometer. A
                        liquid such as milk or juice is easy to check. Spot check other items like steaks or left-overs
                        also. If the internal temperature is above 40 degrees, it is best to throw it out.

                        What if the power goes out and comes back on while I am out? If your freezer is fairly full and
                        you know it was not longer than 24 hours, the food should be OK. There will be loss of quality
                        with refreezing, but the food will be safe. If the refrigerator was out for more than 2-4 hours, you
                        are best to discard the perishables.

                        Prepared by Giant Food, Inc., Landover, Maryland, June 1999. Used with permission. Original
                        content adapted from "Help, Power Outage!" Food News for Consumers, Summer 1989, U.S.
                        Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service. ARC 1098 September 1999


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY




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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Be Prepared > Family Disaster Planning
                        Food and Water in an Emergency
                        (PDF File)

                        Find foreign language versions of this document

                        Family Disaster Planning   |   Disaster Supplies Kit   |   Food Supplies
                        Storing Supplies   |   Water Storage   |   Your Evacuation Plan
                        Looking for a Home   |   Food and Water in an Emergency

                        If an earthquake, hurricane, winter storm or other disaster strikes your community, you might
                        not have access to food, water and electricity for days, or even weeks. By taking some time now
                        to store emergency food and water supplies, you can provide for your entire family. This
                        brochure was developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency in cooperation with
                        the American Red Cross and the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

                        Having an ample supply of clean water is a top priority in an emergency. A normally active
                        person needs to drink at least two quarts of water each day. Hot environments can double that
                        amount. Children, nursing mothers and ill people will need even more. You will also need
                        water for food preparation and hygiene. Store a total of at least one gallon per person, per day.
                        You should store at least a two-week supply of water for each member of your family.

                        If supplies run low, never ration water. Drink the amount you need today, and try to find more for
                        tomorrow. You can minimize the amount of water your body needs by reducing activity and
                        staying cool.

                        Water Supplies

                        How to Store Water
                        Store your water in thoroughly washed plastic, glass, fiberglass or enamel-lined metal
                        containers. Never use a container that has held toxic substances. Plastic containers, such as
                        soft drink bottles, are best. You can also purchase food-grade plastic buckets or drums.

                        Seal water containers tightly, label them and store in a cool, dark place. Rotate water every six
                        months.

                        Emergency Outdoor Water Sources
                        If you need to find water outside your home, you can use these sources. Be sure to treat the
                        water according to the instructions on page 3 before drinking it.

                             Rainwater
                             Streams, rivers and other moving bodies of water
                             Ponds and lakes
                             Natural springs

                        Avoid water with floating material, an odor or dark color. Use saltwater only if you distill it first.
                        You should not drink flood water.

                        Hidden Water Sources in Your Home
                        If a disaster catches you without a stored supply of clean water, you can use the water in your
                        hot-water tank, pipes and ice cubes. As a last resort, you can use water in the reservoir tank of
                        your toilet (not the bowl).

                        Do you know the location of your incoming water valve? You'll need to shut it off to stop
                        contaminated water from entering your home if you hear reports of broken water or sewage
                        lines.

                        To use the water in your pipes, let air into the plumbing by turning on the faucet in your house at
                        the highest level. A small amount of water will trickle out. Then obtain water from the lowest
                        faucet in the house.

                        To use the water in your hot-water tank, be sure the electricity or gas is off, and open the drain at
                        the bottom of the tank. Start the water flowing by turning off the water intake valve and turning on
                        a hot-water faucet. Do not turn on the gas or electricity when the tank is empty.

                        Three Ways to Treat Water
                        In addition to having a bad odor and taste, contaminated water can contain microorganisms
                        that cause diseases such as dysentery, typhoid and hepatitis. You should treat all water of
                        uncertain purity before using it for drinking, food preparation or hygiene.

                        There are many ways to treat water. None is perfect. Often the best solution is a combination of
                        methods.

                        Two easy treatment methods are outlined below. These measures will kill most microbes but
                        will not remove other contaminants such as heavy metals, salts and most other chemicals.
                        Before treating, let any suspended particles settle to the bottom, or strain them through layers of
                        paper towel or clean cloth.

                        Boiling: Boiling is the safest method of treating water. Bring water to a rolling boil for 3-5
                        minutes, keeping in mind that some water will evaporate. Let the water cool before drinking.

                        Boiled water will taste better if you put oxygen back into it by pouring the water back and forth
                        between two clean containers. This will also improve the taste of stored water.

                        Disinfection: You can use household liquid bleach to kill microorganisms. Use only regular
                        household liquid bleach that contains 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite. Do not use scented
                        bleaches, colorsafe bleaches or bleaches with added cleaners.

                        Add 16 drops of bleach per gallon of water, stir and let stand for 30 minutes. If the water does
                        not have a slight bleach odor, repeat the dosage and let stand another 15 minutes.

                        The only agent used to treat water should be household liquid bleach. Other chemicals, such
                        as iodine or water treatment products sold in camping or surplus stores that do not contain
                        5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite as the only active ingredient, are not recommended and
                        should not be used.

                        While the two methods described above will kill most microbes in water, distillation will remove
                        microbes that resist these methods, and heavy metals, salts and most other chemicals.

                        Distillation: Distillation involves boiling water and then collecting the vapor that condenses back
                        to water. The condensed vapor will not include salt and other impurities. To distill, fill a pot
                        halfway with water. Tie a cup to the handle on the pot's lid so that the cup will hang right-side-up
                        when the lid is upside-down (make sure the cup is not dangling into the water) and boil the
                        water for 20 minutes. The water that drips from the lid into the cup is distilled.

                        Food Supplies

                        When Food Supplies Are Low
                        If activity is reduced, healthy people can survive on half their usual food intake for an extended
                        period and without any food for many days. Food, unlike water, may be rationed safely, except
                        for children and pregnant women.

                        If your water supply is limited, try to avoid foods that are high in fat and protein, and don't stock
                        salty foods, since they will make you thirsty. Try to eat salt-free crackers, whole grain cereals
                        and canned foods with high liquid content.

                        You don't need to go out and buy unfamiliar foods to prepare an emergency food supply. You
                        can use the canned foods, dry mixes and other staples on your cupboard shelves. In fact,
                        familiar foods are important. They can lift morale and give a feeling of security in time of stress.
                        Also, canned foods won't require cooking, water or special preparation. Following are
                        recommended short-term food storage plans.

                        Special Considerations
                        As you stock food, take into account your family's unique needs and tastes. Try to include foods
                        that they will enjoy and that are also high in calories and nutrition. Foods that require no
                        refrigeration, preparation or cooking are best.

                        Individuals with special diets and allergies will need particular attention, as will babies,
                        toddlers and elderly people. Nursing mothers may need liquid formula, in case they are unable
                        to nurse. Canned dietetic foods, juices and soups may be helpful for ill or elderly people.

                        Make sure you have a manual can opener and disposable utensils. And don't forget
                        nonperishable foods for your pets.

                        How to Cook If the Power Goes Out
                        or emergency cooking you can use a fireplace, or a charcoal grill or camp stove can be used
                        outdoors. You can also heat food with candle warmers, chafing dishes and fondue pots.
                        Canned food can be eaten right out of the can. If you heat it in the can, be sure to open the can
                        and remove the label first.

                        Short-Term Food Supplies
                        Even though it is unlikely that an emergency would cut off your food supply for two weeks, you
                        should prepare a supply that will last that long.

                        The easiest way to develop a two-week stockpile is to increase the amount of basic foods you
                        normally keep on your shelves.

                        Storage Tips

                             Keep food in a dry, cool spot - a dark area if possible.
                             Keep food covered at all times.
                             Open food boxes or cans care-fully so that you can close them tightly after each use.
                             Wrap cookies and crackers in plastic bags, and keep them in tight containers.
                             Empty opened packages of sugar, dried fruits and nuts into screw-top jars or air-tight
                             cans to protect them from pests.
                             Inspect all food for signs of spoilage before use.
                             Use foods before they go bad, and replace them with fresh supplies, dated with ink or
                             marker. Place new items at the back of the storage area and older ones in front.

                        Nutrition Tips

                             During and right after a disaster, it will be vital that you maintain your strength. So
                             remember:
                             Eat at least one well-balanced meal each day.
                             Drink enough liquid to enable your body to function properly (two quarts a day).
                             Take in enough calories to enable you to do any necessary work.
                             Include vitamin, mineral and protein supplements in your stockpile to assure adequate
                             nutrition.

                        Shelf-life of Foods for Storage
                        Here are some general guidelines for rotating common emergency foods.

                        Use within six months:

                             Powdered milk (boxed)
                             Dried fruit (in metal container)
                             Dry, crisp crackers (in metal container)
                             Potatoes

                        Use within one year:

                             Canned condensed meat and vegetable soups
                             Canned fruits, fruit juices and vegetables
                             Ready-to-eat cereals and uncooked instant cereals (in metal containers)
                             Peanut butter
                             Jelly
                             Hard candy and canned nuts
                             Vitamin C

                        May be stored indefinitely (in proper containers and conditions):

                             Wheat
                             Vegetable oils
                             Dried corn
                             Baking powder
                             Soybeans
                             Instant coffee, tea and cocoa
                             Salt
                             Noncarbonated soft drinks
                             White rice
                             Bouillon products
                             Dry pasta
                             Powdered milk (in nitrogen-packed cans)

                        Disaster Supplies

                        It's 2:00 a.m. and a flash flood forces you to evacuate your home-fast. There's no time to gather
                        food from the kitchen, fill bottles with water, grab a first-aid kit from the closet and snatch a
                        flashlight and a portable radio from the bedroom. You need to have these items packed and
                        ready in one place before disaster strikes.

                        Pack at least a three-day supply of food and water, and store it in a handy place. Choose foods
                        that are easy to carry, nutritious and ready-to-eat. In addition, pack these emergency items:

                             Medical supplies and first aid manual
                             Hygiene supplies
                             Portable radio, flashlights and extra batteries
                             Shovel and other useful tools
                             Household liquid bleach to treat drinking water § Money and matches in a waterproof
                             container
                             Fire extinguisher
                             Blanket and extra clothing
                             Infant and small children's needs (if appropriate)
                             Manual can opener

                        If the Electricity Goes Off . . .
                        FIRST, use perishable food and foods from the refrigerator.

                        THEN, use the foods from the freezer. To minimize the number of times you open the freezer
                        door, post a list of freezer contents on it. In a well-filled, well-insulated freezer, foods will usually
                        still have ice crystals in their centers (meaning foods are safe to eat) for at least three days.

                        FINALLY, begin to use non-perishable foods and staples.


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY




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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Be Prepared > Animal Safety
                        Animal Safety

                        Pets and Disaster: Be Prepared


                        Animal Safety: Pets and Disaster   |   Pets: First aid   |   Farm Animals: Preparedness

                        The following information has been prepared by the Humane Society of the United States in
                        cooperation with the American Red Cross

                        Our pets enrich our lives in more ways than we can count. In turn, they depend on us for their
                        safety and well-being. Here's how you can be prepared to protect your pets when disaster
                        strikes.

                        Be Prepared with a Disaster Plan
                        The best way to protect your family from the effects of a disaster is to have a disaster plan. If you
                        are a pet owner, that plan must include your pets. Being prepared can save their lives.

                        Different disasters require different responses. But whether the disaster is a hurricane or a
                        hazardous spill, you may have to evacuate your home.

                        In the event of a disaster, if you must evacuate, the most important thing you can do to protect
                        your pets is to evacuate them, too. Leaving pets behind, even if you try to create a safe place for
                        them, is likely to result in their being injured, lost, or worse. So prepare now for the day when
                        you and your pets may have to leave your home.

                        1. Have a Safe Place To Take Your Pets
                        Red Cross disaster shelters cannot accept pets because of states' health and safety
                        regulations and other considerations. Service animals who assist people with disabilities are
                        the only animals allowed in Red Cross shelters. It may be difficult, if not impossible, to find
                        shelter for your animals in the midst of a disaster, so plan ahead. Do not wait until disaster
                        strikes to do your research.

                             Contact hotels and motels outside your immediate area to check policies on accepting
                             pets and restrictions on number, size, and species. Ask if "no pet" policies could be
                             waived in an emergency. Keep a list of "pet friendly" places, including phone numbers,
                             with other disaster information and supplies. If you have notice of an impending
                             disaster, call ahead for reservations.
                             Ask friends, relatives, or others outside the affected area whether they could shelter your
                             animals. If you have more than one pet, they may be more comfortable if kept together,
                             but be prepared to house them separately.
                             Prepare a list of boarding facilities and veterinarians who could shelter animals in an
                             emergency; include 24-hour phone numbers.
                             Ask local animal shelters if they provide emergency shelter or foster care for pets in a
                             disaster. Animal shelters may be overburdened caring for the animals they already have
                             as well as those displaced by a disaster, so this should be your last resort.

                        2. Assemble a Portable Pet Disaster Supplies Kit Whether you are away from home for a day
                        or a week, you'll need essential supplies. Keep items in an accessible place and store them in
                        sturdy containers that can be carried easily (duffle bags, covered trash containers, etc.). Your
                        pet disaster supplies kit should include:

                             Medications and medical records (stored in a waterproof container) and a first aid kit.
                             Sturdy leashes, harnesses, and/or carriers to transport pets safely and ensure that your
                             animals can't escape.
                             Current photos of your pets in case they get lost.
                             Food, potable water, bowls, cat litter/pan, and can opener.
                             Information on feeding schedules, medical conditions, behavior problems, and the
                             name and number of your veterinarian in case you have to foster or board your pets.
                             Pet beds and toys, if easily transportable.

                        3. Know What To Do As a Disaster Approaches

                             Often, warnings are issued hours, even days, in advance. At the first hint of disaster, act
                             to protect your pet.
                             Call ahead to confirm emergency shelter arrangements for you and your pets.
                             Check to be sure your pet disaster supplies are ready to take at a moment's notice.
                             Bring all pets into the house so that you won't have to search for them if you have to
                             leave in a hurry.
                             Make sure all dogs and cats are wearing collars and securely fastened, up-to-date
                             identification. Attach the phone number and address of your temporary shelter, if you
                             know it, or of a friend or relative outside the disaster area. You can buy temporary tags or
                             put adhesive tape on the back of your pet's ID tag, adding information with an indelible
                             pen.

                        You may not be home when the evacuation order comes. Find out if a trusted neighbor would
                        be willing to take your pets and meet you at a prearranged location. This person should be
                        comfortable with your pets, know where your animals are likely to be, know where your pet
                        disaster supplies kit is kept, and have a key to your home. If you use a petsitting service, they
                        may be available to help, but discuss the possibility well in advance.

                        Planning and preparation will enable you to evacuate with your pets quickly and safely. But bear
                        in mind that animals react differently under stress. Outside your home and in the car, keep
                        dogs securely leashed. Transport cats in carriers. Don't leave animals unattended anywhere
                        they can run off. The most trustworthy pets may panic, hide, try to escape, or even bite or
                        scratch. And, when you return home, give your pets time to settle back into their routines.
                        Consult your veterinarian if any behavior problems persist.

                        Caring for Birds in an Emergency
                        Birds should be transported in a secure travel cage or carrier. In cold weather, wrap a blanket
                        over the carrier and warm up the car before placing birds inside. During warm weather, carry a
                        plant mister to mist the birds' feathers periodically. Do not put water inside the carrier during
                        transport. Provide a few slices of fresh fruits and vegetables with high water content. Have a
                        photo for identification and leg bands. If the carrier does not have a perch, line it with paper
                        towels and change them frequently. Try to keep the carrier in a quiet area. Do not let the birds
                        out of the cage or carrier.

                        About Other Pets

                        Reptiles
                        Snakes can be transported in a pillowcase but they must be transferred to more secure
                        housing when they reach the evacuation site. If your snakes require frequent feedings, carry
                        food with you. Take a water bowl large enough for soaking as well as a heating pad. When
                        transporting house lizards, follow the same directions as for birds.

                        Pocket Pets
                        Small mammals (hamsters, gerbils, etc.) should be transported in secure carriers suitable for
                        maintaining the animals while sheltered. Take bedding materials, food bowls, and water
                        bottles.

                        A Final Word
                        If you must evacuate, do not leave your animals behind. Evacuate them to a prearranged safe
                        location if they cannot stay with your during the evacuation period. (remember, pets are not
                        allowed in Red Cross shelters.) If there is a possibility that disaster may strike while you are out
                        of the house, there are precautions you can take to increase your pets' chances of survival, but
                        they are not a substitute for evacuating with your pets. For more information, contact The
                        Humane Society of the United States, Disaster Services, 2100 L Street NW, Washington, DC
                        20037.

                        In a statement of understanding, The American Red Cross recognizes The Humane Society of
                        the United States as the nation's largest animal protection organization responsible for the
                        safety and well-being of animals, including disaster relief. The American Red Cross is
                        committed to transforming the caring and concern of the American people into immediate
                        action.

                        More information about pets from The Humane Society of the United States.

                        More information about pets from The American Veterinary Medical Association.


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY





     Disaster Services --
      After a Disaster

      > Water Treatment

      Food Safety

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      Recovering
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      Emergencies

      Earthquakes

      Fires

      Floods

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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > After a Disaster > Water Treatment
                        Water Treatment
                        (PDF File)

                        In addition to having a bad odor, and taste, water from questionable sources may be
                        contaminated by a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria and parasites that cause
                        diseases such as dysentery, cholera, typhoid, and hepatitis. All water of uncertain purity should
                        be treated before use.

                        To treat water, follow these steps:

                           1.Filter the water using a piece of cloth or coffee filter to remove solid particles.
                           2.Bring it to a rolling boil for about one full minute.
                           3.Let it cool at least 30 minutes. Water must be cool or the chlorine treatment described
                             below will be useless.
                           4.Add 16 drop of liquid chlorine bleach per gallon of water, or 8 drops per 2-liter bottle of
                             water. Stir to mix. Sodium hypochlorite of the concentration of 5.25% to 6% should be the
                             only active ingredient in the bleach. There should not be any added soap or fragrances.
                             A major bleach manufacturer has also added Sodium Hydroxide as an active ingredient,
                             which they state does not pose a health risk for water treatment.
                           5.Let stand 30 minutes.
                           6.If it smells of chlorine. You can use it. If it does not smell of chlorine, add 16 more drop
                             of chlorine bleach per gallon of water (or 8 drops per 2-liter bottle of water), let stand 30
                             minutes, and smell it again. If it smells of chlorine, you can use it. If it does not smell of
                             chlorine, discard it and find another source of water.

                        If local public health department information differs from this advice, the local information
                        should prevail.

                        For more information, contact your local Red Cross chapter and ask for a copy of the brochure
                        entitled, "Food and Water in an Emergency" (A5055).


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY




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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Be Prepared > Family Disaster Planning
                        Water Storage Before Disaster Strikes

                        Family Disaster Planning   |   Disaster Supplies Kit   |   Food Supplies
                        Storing Supplies   |   Water Storage   |   Your Evacuation Plan
                        Looking for a Home   |   Food and Water in an Emergency

                        Use directions provided by your local or state public health agency. In the case where your local
                        or state public health agency does not have information, follow the recommendations below.

                        What kinds of containers are recommended to store water in?
                        Make sure the water storage container you plan to use is of food grade quality, such as 2-liter
                        soda bottles, with tight-fitting screw-cap lids. Milk containers are not recommended because
                        they do not seal well.

                        Should water be treated before storing it?
                        If your local water is treated commercially by a water treatment utility, you do not have to treat the
                        water before storing it. Treating commercially-treated water with bleach is superfluous and not
                        necessary. Doing so does not increase storage life. It is important to change and replace
                        stored water every six months or more frequently.

                        If your local water is not treated commercially by a water treatment facility, that is, if your water
                        comes from a public well or other public, non-treated system, follow instructions about water
                        storage provided by your public health agency or water provider. They may recommend treating
                        it with a small amount of liquid household bleach. Still, it is important to change and replace
                        stored water every six months or more frequently.

                        If your local water comes from a private well or other private source, consult with your local
                        public health agency about recommendations regarding storage of water. Some water sources
                        have contaminants (minerals or parasites) that can not be neutralized by treatment with liquid


                        household chlorine bleach. Only your local public health agency should make
                        recommendations about whether your local water can be safely stored, for how long, and how
                        to treat it.

                        Can I use bottled water?
                        If you plan to use commercially prepared "spring" or "drinking" water, keep the water in its
                        original sealed container. Change and replace the water at least once a year. Once opened,
                        use it and do not store it further.

                        For more information, contact your local Red Cross chapter and ask for the brochure titled,
                        "Food and Water in an Emergency" (A5055).

                        For more information, please contact your local Red Cross chapter. Ask for a copy of the
                        following brochures: “Your Family Disaster Plan” (A4466); “Your Family Disaster Supplies Kit”
                        (A4463) and “Food and Water in an Emergency” (A5055).


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY





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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Be Prepared > Special Needs & Concerns: Seniors
                        Special Needs & Concerns

                        Disaster Preparedness for Seniors by Seniors

                        Find foreign language versions of this document

                        People With Disabilities   |   Seniors

                        This information was developed by the Rochester-Monroe County Chapter, American Red
                        Cross.

                        Dear Friends,

                        We are a group of older adults who experienced a two-week power outage when a massive ice
                        storm hit the Greater Rochester, New York, area. We were unprepared for such a disaster. If we
                        had only taken a few simple steps to prepare ourselves for such an event, we could have
                        eliminated many of the hardships we had to endure.

                        We are just like many of you. Some of us are in good health but aren't quite a agile as we used
                        to be; some of us have hearing or vision problems; others use a cane or wheelchair. Whatever
                        our limitations, however, we need to be prepared. We can be prepared.

                        For six months we have researched and discussed disasters and preparedness with the
                        American Red Cross. To avoid getting caught unprepared, we urge you to immediately review
                        the enclosed information and fill in the appropriate local emergency numbers. Be sure to keep
                        this helpful reference tool in a handy place for quick reference.

                        Sincerely,

                        Vi, Melvin Q., Julia L., Nancy C., Marion V., Jam, Dorothy M., Janet H., Fran, Roger H., Mary S.,
                        and LaVinia



                        Take Responsibility

                             Prepare NOW for a sudden emergency
                             Learn how to protect yourself and cope with disaster by planning ahead.
                             Even if you have physical limitations, you can still protect yourself.

                        Disaster can strike quickly and without warning!

                        Local officials and relief workers will be on the scene after a disaster, but they cannot reach
                        everyone right away.

                        Take responsibility--Save your life!

                        Keep in touch with your neighbors and look out for each other.

                        Knowing What to Do Is Your Best Protection And Your Responsibility.

                        Every day some part of the country is affected by one or more of the following emergencies:

                             Hurricanes
                             Earthquakes
                             Winter Storms
                             Tornadoes
                             Thunderstorms
                             Flooding
                             Toxic Spills
                             Fires

                        Which three are most likely to happen in your area?

                        Preparing for a disaster that is most likely to happen in your area will help you be prepared for
                        any disaster. Remember anything can happen at any time.

                        See the section, "For More Information," at the end of this document to obtain information on
                        potential disasters that can happen in your area.

                        Notification
                        How You May Be Notified Of A Possible Emergency

                             NOAA weather radio.
                                  These special radios provide the earliest warning with an alarm that will alert you
                                  in case of anticipated bad weather. To learn more, call your local National
                                  Weather Service office.
                             Commercial radio and television stations.
                                  Know your designed Emergency Alert System stations (EAS).
                                  My EAS Radio Station is:
                                  My EAS Television Station:
                             Door to door warning from local emergency officials.
                                  Strictly follow their instructions!

                        Be aware of anyone in your neighborhood who may need special help. If available, take advantage of
                        advance registration systems in your area for those who need help.

                        Family Disaster Plan
                        Plan Ahead!!!

                        The next time disaster strikes, you may not have much time to act. Prepare now for a sudden
                        emergency.

                        By planning ahead you can avoid waiting in long lines for critical supplies, such as food, water
                        and medicine. Remember to review your plan regularly.

                        Use the following checklist to get started:

                        Your Disaster Checklist

                             Assemble a disaster supplies kit.
                             Arrange for someone to check on you.
                             Plan and practice the best escape routes from your home.
                             Plan for transportation if you need to evacuate to a Red Cross shelter.
                             Find the safe places in your home for each type of emergency.
                             Have a plan to signal the need for help.
                             Post emergency phone numbers near the phone.
                             If you have home health care service, plan ahead with your agency for emergency
                             procedures.
                             Teach those who may need to assist you in an emergency how to operate necessary
                             equipment. Be sure they will be able to reach you.

                        Medical Emergency Supplies

                        For your safety and comfort, you need to have emergency supplies packed and ready in one
                        place before disaster hits.

                        You should assemble enough supplies to last for at least three days.

                             Assemble the supplies you would need in an evacuation, both medical and general
                             supplies.
                             Store them in an easy-to-carry container, such as a backpack of duffel bag.
                             Be sure your bag has an ID tag.
                             Label any equipment, such as wheelchairs, canes or walkers, that you would need.

                        For Your Medical Needs

                             First-aid kit
                             Prescription medicines, list of medications including dosage, list of any allergies
                             Extra eyeglasses and hearing-aid batteries
                             Extra wheelchair batteries, oxygen
                             List of the style and serial numbers of medical devices such as pacemakers
                             Medical insurance and Medicare cards
                             List of doctors and relatives or friends who should be notified if you are injured
                             Any other items you may need

                        General Disaster Supplies

                             Battery-powered radio and flashlight with extra batteries for each
                             Change of clothing, rain gear, and sturdy shoes
                             Blanket or sleeping bag
                             Extra set of keys
                             Cash, credit cards, change for the pay phone
                             Personal hygiene supplies
                             Phone numbers of local and non-local relatives or friends
                             Insurance agent's name and number
                             Other items you want to include

                        It may not be necessary to evacuate, or you may be ordered to stay in your home. If this
                        happens, you will need in addition to the above items:

                             Water supply: one gallon per day per person. Remember, plan for at least 3 days. Store
                             water in sealed, unbreakable containers that you are able to handle. Identify the storage
                             date and replace every six months.
                             Non-perishable food supply--including any special foods you require. Choose foods that
                             are easy to store and carry, nutritious and ready-to-eat. Rotate them regularly. See
                             section, "For More Information".
                             Manual can opener you are able to use.
                             Non-perishable food for any pets.

                        Shelter In Place

                        In a chemical emergency, you may be told to shelter in place. This means staying where you
                        are and making yourself as safe as possible until the emergency passes or you are told to
                        evacuate.

                        In this situation it is safer to remain indoors than to go outside where the air is unsafe to
                        breathe.

                        If You are Told To Shelter In Place

                             Close all windows in your home.
                             Turn off all fans, heating, and air conditioning systems.
                             Close the fireplace damper.
                             Go to an above-ground room (not the basement) with the fewest windows and doors.
                             Take your Disaster Supplies Kit with you.
                             Wet some towels and jam them in the crack under the doors. Tape around doors,
                             windows, exhaust fans or vents. Use plastic garbage bags to cover windows, outlets
                             and heat registers.
                             If you are told there is danger of explosion, close the window shades, blinds or curtains.
                             To avoid injury, stay away from the windows.
                             Stay in the room and listen to your radio until you are told all is safe or you are told to
                             evacuate.

                        Red Cross Shelters may be opened if

                             A disaster affects a large number of people.
                             The emergency is expected to last several days.

                        Be Prepared to Go to a Shelter if. . .

                             Your area is without electrical power.
                             There is a chemical emergency affecting your area.
                             Flood water is rising.
                             Your home has been severely damaged.
                             Police or other local officials tell you to evacuate.

                        Services Provided at a Red Cross Shelter

                             Food.
                             Temporary shelter.
                             Basic First Aid.

                        To Learn About Red Cross Shelters Serving Your Area

                             Listen to your battery-powered radio.
                             Check with your local Red Cross chapter.

                        All American Red Cross emergency services are provided free of charge.

                        If You Need To Evacuate

                             Coordinate with your home care provider for evacuation procedures.
                             Try to car pool if possible.
                             If you must have assistance for special transportation call the American Red Cross or
                             your local officials.
                             Wear appropriate clothing and sturdy shoes.
                             Take your Disaster Supplies Kit.
                             Lock your home.
                             Use the travel routes specified or special assistance provided by local officials. Don't
                             take any short cuts, they may be unsafe.
                             Notify shelter authorities of any need you may have. They will do their best to
                             accommodate you and make you comfortable.

                        If You Are Sure You Have Enough Time...

                             Shut off water, gas, and electricity if instructed to do so and if you know how. Gas must
                             be turned back on by a professional.
                             Let others know when you left and where you are going.
                             Make arrangements for pets. Animals other than working animals may not be allowed in
                             public shelters.

                        Residential Fires

                        One emergency we could all face at any time is a home fire. A home fire could be a special
                        challenge for one with physical limitations. However, there are some things we can do to
                        improve our safety:

                        Before a Fire

                             Plan two escape routes out of each room. If you cannot use stairways, make special
                             arrangements for help in advance. Never use elevators.
                             Sleep with the bedroom door closed. This gives you extra minutes of protection from
                             toxic fumes and fire.
                             Test your smoke detector battery regularly, and as a reminder, change batteries on the
                             same day each year. Vacuum it occasionally to remove dust.

                        In Case Of Fire

                             Remain calm.
                             Drop to the floor and crawl. Most fire fatalities are due to breathing toxic fumes and
                             smoke. The cleanest air is near the floor. Breathing toxic fumes and smoke is more
                             dangerous than the risk of injury in getting to the floor quickly.
                             Feel any door before you open it. If it is hot, find another way out.
                             If your smoke detector goes off, never waste time to get dressed or collect valuables or
                             pets. Get out of the house immediately.
                             Do not try to fight the fire! Call for help from a neighbor's phone.
                             Never go back into a burning building for any reason.
                             If your clothes catch on fire, drop to the floor and roll to suffocate the fire. Keep rolling
                             (running from the fire only "fans" the flames and makes it worse).
                             If you are in a wheelchair or cannot get out of your house, stay by the window near the
                             floor. If you are able, signal the need to help.

                        Grandchildren's Safety

                        It is estimated that 3.4 million children live in a household headed by grandparents. And, many
                        children visit their grandparents often. The following safety advice for children can help
                        grandparents prepare a safe environment at home for children:

                             Store matches and lighters up high, away from children.
                             Move cleaning chemicals like cleansers, soap, drain cleaner, and other poisons to high
                             cupboards OR install a child-proof lock if you must keep these items in low cabinets.
                             Store prescription medicines and over-the-counter drugs like aspirin, cough medicines,
                             and stomachache remedies in a cabinet out of reach of children.
                             If children are playing outside or in a pool when skies grow dark or you hear thunder,
                             ask them to come indoors right away.
                             Install plastic covers over all exposed electrical outlets.

                        Children Can Help Grandparents, too:

                             Have children test each smoke detector in your home to make sure it is working by
                             using a broom handle to push the test button. See that the battery is changed in each
                             detector that doesn't work.
                             Ask children to draw a floor plan of your home and show two ways out of every room in
                             case of fire.

                        Summary and Reminders

                             Take responsibility by planning now.
                             Listen for information on radio and TV about hazardous weather and other events, and
                             heed the advice of local officials. Leave right away if told to do so.
                             In some communities, people who need help or transportation during an evacuation are
                             asked to register that need with their local government. Call your local emergency
                             management office for information and suggestions about what to do during an
                             evacuation.
                             Gather essential supplies, and be sure to keep a copy of your eyeglass prescription, list
                             of medications and their dosage, and other important papers to take with you if you have
                             to leave your home.

                        For More Information:

                        If you would like more information on disaster planning or on the disasters likely to happen in
                        your area, the following information is available

                             Emergency Preparedness Checklist
                             Your Family Disaster Plan
                             Your Family Disaster Supplies Kit
                             Food and Water in an Emergency
                             Are You Ready for a Tornado?
                             Are You Ready for a Flood?
                             Are You Ready for an Earthquake?
                             Are You Ready for a Fire?
                             Are You Ready for a Hurricane?
                             Are You Ready for a Winter Storm?

                        The following may be ordered free from the U.S. Fire Administration

                             Smoke Detectors and Fire Safety: A Guide for Older Americans
                             Pub. #L-126

                             FEMA/U.S. Fire Administration
                             P.O. Box 2012
                             Jessup, MD 20794-2012

                        NOAA Weather Radio information from

                             NOAA Weather Radio
                             Stock #: NOAA PA 76015

                             Contact your local National Weather Service office.

                             Includes frequency information, type of information broadcast and where to obtain a
                             NOAA Weather Radio.

                             For more information from the National Weather Service.

                        The following may be ordered from FEMA

                             FEMA
                             P.O. Box 2012
                             Jessup, MD 20794-2012

                             Preparedness for People with Disabilities (earthquake)
                             Pub. # FEMA-75

                             Hurricane Awareness-Action Guidelines for Senior Citizens
                             Item #8-0440

                             Or, consult FEMA.

                        Emergency information may also be obtained from your utility company.

                        Emergency Phone Numbers
                        Local emergency services number:_______________________

                        Ambulance:____________________________________________

                        Nearest relative:_______________________________________

                        Local contact:_________________________________________

                        Out of state contact:____________________________________

                        Doctors:_______________________________________________

                        Local Red Cross Chapter:_______________________________

                        Insurance Agent:_______________________________________

                        Other:_________________________________________________

                        Medications List With Dosage
                        Production of this information was funded by a grant from the Special Projects Fund of the
                        American National Red Cross to the Rochester-Monroe County Chapter of the American Red
                        Cross and was developed in cooperation with:

                        Monroe County Office of Emergency Preparedness
                        Monroe County Community Home Health Agency
                        Monroe County Office for the Aging
                        Visiting Nurse Service
                        Catholic Family Center
                        Rochester Gas and Electric
                        Rochester Telephone


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY




     Disaster Services --
      Be Prepared

      Family Disaster
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         Concerns

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      Financial
      Preparations

      Business & Industry
      Guide

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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Be Prepared > Special Needs & Concerns: People With
                       Disabilities
                        Special Needs & Concerns

                        Disaster Preparedness for People With Disabilities

                        People With Disabilities   |   Seniors

                        Table of Contents

                             Preface
                             Acknowledgements
                             Introduction
                             Downloadable Versions (wpd) (pdf)
                             Understanding Disasters
                             Creating a Personal Support Network
                             Completing a Personal Assessment
                             Personal Disaster Preparation
                             Disaster Supplies
                             Making Your Home or Office Safer
                             Glossary

                             Appendixes
                             Appendix A: Disaster Supplies Kits and Other Essential Supplies
                             Appendix B: Disaster Supplies Calendar
                             Appendix C: Important Lists

                        Preface
                        Disaster Preparedness for People With Disabilities has been designed to help people who
                        have physical, visual, auditory, or cognitive disabilities to prepare for natural disasters and their
                        consequences. In 1984, the Los Angeles Chapter of the American Red Cross created a booklet
                        titled Disaster Preparedness for the Disabled and Elderly. That booklet, which is no longer in
                        print, served as the foundation for material contained here. In the last 12 years, new information
                        has been published about disaster preparation for people with disabilities, and relevant
                        documents, guidelines, and other materials have been reviewed and added, as appropriate, in
                        this updated booklet. Anyone who has a disability or anyone who works with, lives with, or
                        assists a person with a disability can use this booklet. It contains information that can help you
                        organize a personal disaster plan and includes plans for the care of service animals and/or
                        pets during a disaster. This booklet is designed with checklists and extra space for you or your
                        helper to use to organize information that will help you prepare for a disaster. You may copy
                        these pages from the booklet as needed to distribute or post somewhere handy. If you have
                        questions about any of the content or recommendations in this booklet, please contact your
                        Local American Red Cross Chapter.


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY

above was from http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/afterdis/recover.html




     Disaster Services --
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         Emergencies

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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Disaster Safety > Chemical Emergencies
                       Chemical Emergencies
                       (PDF File)

                       Why Talk About Chemical Emergencies?
                       What Is a Home Chemial Emergency, and a Major Chemical
                       Emergency?
                       Awareness Information
                       Preventing Chemical Emergencies in the Home
                       What to Do During a Home Chemical Emergency
                       Plan for Major Chemical Emergencies
                       Media and Communicaty Education Ideas
                       What to Do During a Major Chemical Emergency
                       What to Do if You Are at the Scene of a Chemical Accident
                       How to Shelter-in-Place
                       Evacuation During a Chemical Emergency
                       What to Do After a Major Chemical Emergency


                       Why Talk About Chemical Emergencies?

                       Hazardous materials are chemical substances, which if released or misused, can pose a threat
                       to the environment. These chemicals are used in industry, agriculture, medicine, research, and
                       consumer goods. As many as 500,000 products pose physical or health hazards and can be
                       defined as "hazardous chemicals." Each year, over 1,000 new synthetic chemicals are
                       introduced. Hazardous materials come in the form of explosives, flammable and combustible
                       substances, poisons, and radioactive materials. These substances are most often released as a
                       result of transportation accidents or because of chemical accidents in manufacturing plants.


                       Hazardous materials are most often released as a result of transportation accidents or because of chemical
                       accidents in manufacturing plants.


                                                                                 Back to Top


                       What Is a Home Chemial Emergency, and a Major Chemical Emergency?

                       Chemicals are a natural and important part of our environment. Even though we often don't think
                       about it, we use chemicals every day. They can be found in our kitchens, medicine cabinets,
                       basements, and garages. Chemicals help us keep our food fresh and our bodies clean. They
                       help our plants grow and fuel our cars. And chemicals make it possible for us to live longer,
                       healthier lives.

                       A home chemical emergency arises when chemicals are used improperly. Some chemicals that
                       are safe, and even helpful in small amounts, can be harmful in larger quantities or under certain
                       conditions. In fact, most chemical accidents occur in our own homes, and they can be prevented.

                       A major chemical emergency is an accident that releases a hazardous amount of a chemical into
                       the environment. Accidents can happen underground, on railroad tracks or highways, and at
                       manufacturing plants. These accidents sometimes result in a fire or explosion, but many times
                       you cannot see or smell anything unusual.

                       In the event of a major chemical emergency, you will be notified by the authorities. To get your
                       attention, a siren could sound, you may be called by telephone, or emergency personnel may
                       drive by and give instructions over a loudspeaker. Officials might even come to your door.

                       Learn more about your risk of chemical emergencies by contacting your local poison control
                       center, local authorities on hazardous materials, the Environmental Protection Agency, your local
                       emergency manager, or local American Red Cross chapter.


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                       Awareness Information

                       You may be exposed to a chemical even though you may not be able to see or smell anything
                       unusual. You may be exposed in three ways:

                          1.Breathing the chemical.

                          2.Swallowing contaminated food, water, or medication.

                          3.Touching the chemical, or coming into contact with clothing or things that have touched
                            the chemical.

                       Learn about chemicals and chemical emergencies:

                            Chemicals are everywhere. They are an important part of life.

                            The most common chemical accidents occur in our own homes, and they can be
                            prevented.

                            The best way to avoid chemical accidents is to read and follow the directions for use,
                            storage, and disposal of the product. Mixing products can be hazardous.

                       If you find someone who appears to have been injured from chemical exposure, make sure
                       you are not in danger before administering first aid. If you think there might be potential danger,
                       call 9-1-1 or your local emergency number. If there is no danger, give first aid as needed.

                       The best way to protect yourself and your family is to be prepared. Knowing what to watch for and
                       how to respond will keep you alert to potential chemical hazards.


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                       Preventing Chemical Emergencies in the Home

                            Learn about household chemical risk. Contact authorities on hazardous household
                            materials, such as the Environmental Protection Agency, for information about potentially
                            dangerous household products and their antidotes. Ask about the advisability of
                            maintaining antidotes in your home for cleaners and germicides, deodorizers, detergents,
                            drain and bowl cleaners, gases, home medications, laundry bleaches, liquid fuels, and
                            paint removers and thinners.

                            Keep all medicines, cosmetics, cleaning products, and other household chemicals out
                            of sight and out of reach of children. The most common home chemical emergencies
                            involve small children eating medicines. Experts in the field of chemical manufacturing
                            suggest that moving hazardous materials out of sight could eliminate up to 75 percent of
                            all poisonings of small children.

                            Flush medicines that are no longer being used or that are outdated down the toilet, and
                            place the empty container in the trash. Outdated medicines can sometimes cause ill
                            effects. Flushing them will eliminate the risk of people or animals picking them out of
                            garbage.

                            Store household chemicals according to the instructions on the label. Non-food
                            products should be stored tightly closed in their original container so you can always
                            identify the contents of each container and how to properly use the product.

                            Avoid mixing common household chemical products. Some combinations of these
                            products, such as ammonia and chlorine bleach, can create toxic gases.

                            Always read the directions before using a new product. To avoid inhaling dangerous
                            vapors, do not use some products in a small, confined space. Other products should not
                            be used without gloves and eye protection to help prevent the chemical from touching your
                            body.

                            Read instructions on how to dispose of chemicals properly. Improper disposal can
                            result in harm to yourself or members of your family, accidental contamination of the local
                            water supply, or harm to other people. It is also important to dispose of products properly
                            to preserve the environment and protect wildlife. Plus, some products can be recycled,
                            which helps protect the environment. If you have questions about how to properly dispose
                            of a chemical, call the facility or the environmental or recycling agency.

                                 Small amounts of the following products can be safely poured down the drain with
                                 plenty of water: antifreeze, bathroom and glass cleaner, bleach, drain cleaner,
                                 fertilizer, household disinfectant, laundry and dishwashing detergent, rubbing
                                 alcohol, rug and upholstery cleaner, and toilet bowl cleaner.

                                 Small amounts of the following products should be disposed of by wrapping the
                                 container in newspaper and plastic and placing it in the trash: brake fluid, car wax
                                 or polish, dish and laundry soap, drain cleaner, fertilizer, furniture and floor polish,
                                 insect repellent, nail polish, oven cleaner, paint thinners and strippers, pesticides,
                                 power cleaners, toilet bowl cleaner, water-based paint, and wood preservatives.

                                 Dispose of the following products at a recycling center or a collection site:
                                 kerosene, motor or fuel oil, car battery or battery acid, diesel fuel, transmission
                                 fluid, large amounts of paint, paint thinner or stripper, power steering fluid,
                                 turpentine, gun cleaning solvents, and tires.

                                 Empty spray cans by pressing the button until nothing comes out, then place the
                                 can in the trash. Do not place spray cans into a burning barrel, incinerator, or trash
                                 compactor because they may explode.

                            Never smoke while using household chemicals. Avoid using hair spray, cleaning
                            solutions, paint products, or pesticides near the open flame of an appliance, pilot light,
                            lighted candle, fireplace, wood burning stove, etc. Although you may not be able to see
                            or smell them, vapor particles in the air could catch fire or explode.

                            If you should spill a chemical, clean it up immediately with rags, being careful to
                            protect your eyes and skin. Allow the fumes in the rags to evaporate outdoors in a safe
                            place, then dispose of them by wrapping them in a newspaper and placing them in a
                            sealed plastic bag. Dispose of these materials with your trash.

                            Buy only as much of a chemical as you think you will use. If you have product left over, try
                            to give it to someone who will use it. Storing hazardous chemicals increases risk to
                            chemical emergencies.

                            Keep an A-B-C-rated fire extinguisher in the home and car, and get training from your
                            local fire department on how to use them. Should chemicals ignite, you will have an
                            opportunity to extinguish the fire before it spreads, avoiding greater damage.

                            Post the number of the nearest poison control center by all telephones. In an
                            emergency situation you may not have time to look up critical phone numbers.

                            Learn to detect the presence of a hazardous material. Many hazardous materials do not
                            have a taste or an odor. Some materials can be detected because they cause physical
                            reactions such as watering eyes or nausea. Some hazardous materials exist beneath the
                            surface of the ground and can be recognized by an oil or foam-like appearance.
                            Recognizing them immediately will allow you to take steps to avoid direct contact and limit
                            your exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals.

                            Learn to recognize the symptoms of toxic poisoning:

                                 Difficulty in breathing.

                                 Irritation of the eyes, skin, throat, or respiratory tract.

                                 Changes in skin color.

                                 Headache or blurred vision.

                                 Dizziness.

                                 Clumsiness or lack of coordination.

                                 Cramps or diarrhea.


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                       What to Do During a Home Chemical Emergency

                            If your child should eat or drink a non-food substance, find any containers immediately
                            and take them to the phone. The poison control center may need specific information
                            from the container to give you the best emergency advice.

                            Call the poison control center, emergency medical services (EMS), 9-1-1, or the
                            operator. They will give you emergency advice while you wait for professional help.

                            Follow the emergency operator's or dispatcher's instructions carefully. Often the first
                            aid advice found on containers may not be appropriate. Do not give anything by mouth
                            until you have been advised by medical professionals.

                            If a hazardous substance comes into contact with an eye, it is important to take
                            immediate action. Delaying first aid can greatly increase the likelihood of injury. Flush the
                            eye with clear, lukewarm water for a minimum of 15 minutes, unless authorities instruct
                            you not to use water on the particular chemical involved. Continue the cleansing process
                            even if the victim indicates he or she is no longer feeling any pain, then seek medical
                            attention.

                            If there is danger of a fire or explosion, get out of the house immediately. Do not waste
                            time collecting items or calling the fire department when you are in danger.

                            If there is a fire or explosion, call the fire department from outside (a cellular phone or
                            a neighbor's phone). Once you are safely away from danger, call for professional help.

                            Stay away from the house to avoid the possibility of breathing toxic fumes.

                            Wash hands, arms, or other parts of the body that may have been exposed to the
                            chemical. Chemicals may continue to irritate the skin until they are washed off.

                            Discard any clothing that may have been contaminated. Some chemicals may not wash
                            out completely. Discarding clothes will prevent potential future exposure.

                            Administer first aid treatment to victims of chemical burns.

                                 Call 9-1-1 for emergency help.

                                 Remove clothing and jewelry from around the injury.

                                 Pour clean, cool water over the burn for 15 to 30 minutes.

                                 Loosely cover the burn with a sterile or clean dressing. Be sure that the dressing
                                 will not stick to the burn.

                                 Refer victim to a medical professional for further treatment.


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                       Plan for Major Chemical Emergencies

                            Learn about your community's risk from major chemical emergencies. Contact your
                            emergency management agency or American Red Cross chapter for information on
                            chemical plants and hazardous material transportation routes in your area.

                            Find out evacuation plans for your workplace and your children's schools. Different
                            locations have different plans. Know where you or your children may be taken in the event
                            of a major chemical emergency.

                            Develop an evacuation plan. (See "Evacuation" in the "Family Disaster Plan" section.)
                            Everyone in your family should know where to go if they have to leave. Trying to make
                            plans at the last minute can be upsetting and create confusion.

                            Learn about industry and community warning signals. Different communities may have
                            different ways of providing warnings. Many communities have sirens intended for outdoor
                            warning purposes. Use a NOAA weather radio with a tone-alert feature to keep you aware
                            of warnings while you are indoors.

                       Discuss chemical emergencies with your family. Everyone should know what to do in case all
                       family members are not together. Discussing major chemical emergencies ahead of time helps
                       reduce fear and anxiety and lets everyone know how to respond.



                       Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit

                       Please see the "Disaster Supplies Kit" section for general supplies kit information. Specific
                       supplies for a chemical emergency should include the following:

                            Disaster Supply Kit basics
                            Evacuation Supply Kit



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                       Media and Community Education Ideas

                            Publish a special section in your local newspaper with emergency information on
                            hazardous materials. Localize the information by printing the phone numbers of the local
                            poison control center, emergency services offices, the American Red Cross, and local
                            hospitals.

                            Interview a member of your community's Local Emergency Planning Committee about
                            what hazardous substances may be in your community, where they are kept in large
                            quantities, and by what routes they are transported through the area.

                            Publish a chart of warning symbols and terms.

                            Publish a series on hazardous materials that can be found in the home and the proper
                            antidotes for them.

                            Stage a demonstration to show people how to seal off their homes properly by working
                            with emergency building materials, such as sandbags, plywood, and plastic sheeting.


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                       What to Do During a Major Chemical Emergency

                            If you hear a siren or other warning signal, turn on a radio or television for further
                            emergency information. You will be notified of a major chemical emergency by the
                            authorities. To get your attention, a siren could sound, you may be called by telephone, or
                            emergency personnel may drive by and give instructions over a loudspeaker. Officials
                            might even come to your door.

                            Listen carefully to the radio or television. The Emergency Alert System (EAS), which has
                            replaced the Emergency Broadcast System, may be activated. You will be given specific
                            instructions for your particular situation.

                            Strictly follow instructions. Your life could depend on it.

                            You will be told the following:

                                 The type of health hazard.

                                 The area affected.

                                 How to protect yourself.

                                 Evacuation routes (if necessary).

                                 Shelter locations.

                                 Type and location of medical facilities.

                                 The phone numbers to call if you need extra help.

                            Call EMS, 9-1-1, or the operator only for a possible life-threatening emergency. Do not
                            call the telephone company, and do not call EMS, 9-1-1, or the operator for information.
                            Telephone lines are frequently overwhelmed in disaster situations. They need to be clear
                            for emergency calls to get through.

                            Your children may be sheltered in place or evacuated from school. If protective actions
                            are being taken at your children's school, do not go to the school or call the school. For
                            further information, listen to local emergency radio and TV stations to learn when and
                            where you can pick up your children.


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                       What to Do if You Are at the Scene of a Chemical Accident

                            Call 9-1-1 or the local fire department to report the nature and location of the accident
                            as soon as possible. Alerting local authorities to a major chemical emergency
                            immediately may help reduce potential injury or damage. Stay on the phone until the
                            operator tells you to hang up.

                            Move away from the accident scene and help others away. Minimizing the time you are
                            exposed reduces your risk of injury from breathing toxic chemicals. Some chemicals may
                            ignite or explode.

                            Stay away from the spilled substance and avoid touching it. If you are not sure of a
                            substance or its effects, wait for authorities on the scene to advise you of proper medical
                            care or attention to minimize injury.

                            Try to avoid inhaling gases, fumes, or smoke. If possible, cover your mouth with a cloth
                            while leaving the area. Many chemicals can damage breathing passages.

                            Stay away from accident victims until the hazardous material has been identified. Once
                            a substance has been identified and authorities indicate it is safe to go near victims, you
                            can move victims to fresh air and call for emergency medical care. Remove contaminated
                            clothing and shoes and place them in a plastic bag.

                            Cleanse victims who have come in contact with chemicals. Pour cold water over the
                            skin or eyes with running water for at least 15 minutes, unless authorities instruct you not
                            to use water on the particular chemical involved. Use the same treatment for eye burns
                            and remove any contact lenses. Be careful to flush the eye from the nose outward. If no
                            large amount of clean water is available, gently brush the chemical off the skin and away
                            from the victim and you. If the chemical is on the face, neck, or shoulders, ask the victim to
                            close his or her eyes before brushing off the chemical. Minimizing your exposure will
                            decrease potential injury.

                            Try to stay upstream, uphill, and upwind of the accident. Chemicals may be carried by
                            water, gravity, or wind. Minimize your exposure.


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                       How to Shelter-in-Place

                       One of the basic instructions you may be given in a chemical emergency is to shelter-in-place.
                       This is a precaution aimed to keep you and your family safe while remaining in your home. If you
                       are told to shelter-in-place, go inside, close all windows and vents and turn off all fans, heating or
                       cooling systems. Take family members and pets to a safe room, seal windows and doors, and
                       listen to local radio (or television) stations, or a NOAA Weather Radio for instructions.

                            While gathering your family, you can provide a minimal amount of breathing protection
                            by covering your mouth and nose with a damp cloth. Many chemicals can cause
                            damage to breathing passages.

                            Immediately after the shelter-in-place announcement is issued, fill up bathtubs or large
                            containers for an additional water supply, and turn off the intake valve to the house.
                            Water supplies may become contaminated. Preserve the water you have available.

                            If gas or vapors could have entered the building, take shallow breaths through a cloth
                            or a towel. Many chemicals can cause damage to breathing passages.

                            Avoid eating or drinking any food or water that may be contaminated. Injury may occur
                            from eating or drinking toxic chemicals.

                            Seal house so contaminants cannot enter:

                                 Close and lock all windows and doors in your home.

                                 Turn off all fans, heating and air conditioning systems.

                                 Close the fireplace damper.

                                 Seal gaps and cracks under doorways and windows with wet towels and duct
                                 tape.

                                 Seal gaps around window and air conditioning units, bathroom and kitchen
                                 exhaust fans, and stove and dryer vents with duct tape and plastic sheeting,
                                 wax paper, or aluminum wrap.

                                 Close off nonessential rooms such as storage areas, laundry rooms, and extra
                                 bedrooms.

                                 Turn off ventilation systems.

                            Go to an above-ground room (not the basement) with the fewest windows and doors.
                            Some chemicals are heavier than air, and may seep into basements, even if the windows
                            are closed.

                            Take your Disaster Supplies Kit with you. These items may make you more comfortable
                            while you are waiting for further instructions.

                            Stay in the room and listen to your radio or television until you are told all is safe, or you
                            are told to evacuate. Local officials may call for evacuation in specific areas at greatest
                            risk in your community. Following the advice of local authorities is your safest choice.

                            If you are told there is danger of explosion, close the window shades, blinds, or
                            curtains. To avoid injury, stay away from the windows. If windows break due to the
                            explosion, the shades will help prevent glass from shattering into your home.


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                       Evacuation During a Chemical Emergency

                       If you are told to evacuate immediately, take your Disaster Supplies Kit. Pack only the bare
                       essentials, such as medications, and leave your home quickly. Follow the route authorities
                       recommend. Don't take shortcuts on the way to the shelter, they may be blocked or expose you to
                       dangerous chemicals.

                            It is important to stay calm, listen carefully, and follow all instructions. Authorities will
                            decide if evacuation is necessary, based primarily on the type and amount of chemical
                            released and how long it is expected to affect an area. Other considerations are the length
                            of time it should take to evacuate the area, weather conditions, and the time of day.
                            Authorities will advise you of the safest steps to take for your particular situation.

                            If an evacuation order is issued, listen to your radio to make sure the evacuation order
                            applies to you, and to understand if you are to evacuate immediately or if you have time
                            to pack some essentials. Stay tuned to a radio or television for information on evacuation
                            routes, temporary shelters, and procedures. Following the advice of local authorities is
                            your safest choice.

                            Avoid using the telephone. Use your phone only in life-threatening emergencies, and
                            then call the poison control center, EMS, 9-1-1, or the operator immediately. Telephone
                            lines are frequently overwhelmed in disaster situations. They need to be clear for
                            emergency calls to get through.

                            If you are told to evacuate, do so immediately. Local officials may call for evacuation in
                            specific areas at greatest risk in your community. Following the advice of local authorities
                            is your safest protection.

                            Take your Disaster Supplies Kit. These items may make you more comfortable while you
                            are away from home.

                            Only if you have time, seal your house so contaminants cannot enter:

                                 Shut off all vents.

                                 Close fireplace dampers.

                                 You don't need to turn off your refrigerator or freezer, but you should turn off all
                                 other appliances and lights as you leave.

                                 Close and lock your windows and doors.

                            Move quickly and calmly. Leaving the area as quickly as possible will reduce your chance
                            of exposure to hazardous materials. Staying calm and rational will help you move safely
                            and avoid delays or accidents caused by irrational behavior.

                            Do not assume that a shelter will have everything you need. While shelters provide a
                            safe place to stay and food, specialty items for infants and individuals on restricted diets
                            may not be available. In most major chemical emergencies, shelters will provide only
                            emergency items such as meals, cots, and blankets.

                            If you need a ride, ask a neighbor. If no neighbor is available to help you, listen to local
                            radio or television stations for further instructions.

                            Check on neighbors to make sure they have been notified, and offer help to those with
                            disabilities or other special needs. Elderly people and people with disabilities may
                            require additional assistance, and people who care for them or who have large families
                            may need assistance in emergency situations.

                            Take only one vehicle to the evacuation site. Traffic may be very heavy and parking at a
                            shelter may be limited. Reduce further congestion and keep your family together by
                            eliminating additional vehicles.

                            Close your car windows and air vents, and turn off the heater or air conditioner. Many
                            chemicals can cause damage to breathing passages.

                            For your safety, follow the exact route you are told to take. Shortcuts may put you in the
                            path of danger.


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                       What to Do After a Major Chemical Emergency

                            Return home only when authorities say it is safe. Local officials on the scene are the
                            best source of information for your particular situation.

                            Follow local instructions concerning the safety of food and water. Contaminated food or
                            water can cause illness.

                            Clean up and dispose of residue carefully. Follow instructions from emergency officials
                            concerning cleanup methods. Local officials will best know proper procedures for your
                            particular situation.


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                       Produced by the National Disaster Education Coalition: American Red Cross, FEMA, IAEM, IBHS,
                       NFPA, NWS, USDA/CSREES, and USGS

                       This information is in the public domain and is intended to be used and shared without copyright
                       restrictions. If you wish to cite the source when you use this material, the following is suggested:
                       From: Talking About Disaster: Guide for Standard Messages. Produced by the National Disaster
                       Education Coalition, Washington, D.C., 1999.


        © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY



Below is from the Red Cross http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/keepsafe/drought.html



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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Disaster Safety > Drought
                        Drought: Fact Sheet on Water Conservation
                        (PDF File)

                        Many people have asked the American Red Cross for tips on conserving water for
                        environmental reasons, as well as when drought conditions threaten. The following tips were
                        developed by a coalition of specialists on water conservation in Florida, and are also consistent
                        with the recommendations that were developed through the National Disaster Education
                        Coalition's "Drought Forum":

                        Indoor Use

                        General

                             Never pour water down the drain when there may be another use for it. Use it to water
                             your indoor plants or garden.
                             Make sure your home is leak-free. When you are certain that no water is being used in
                             your home, take a reading of the water meter. Wait 30 minutes and then take a second
                             reading. If the meter reading changes, you have a leak!
                             Repair dripping faucets by replacing washers. One drop per second wastes 2,700
                             gallons of water per year!

                        Bathroom

                             Check for toilet leaks by adding food coloring to the tank. If you have a leak, the color will
                             appear in the bowl within 30 minutes. (Flush immediately to avoid stains.)
                             If the toilet handle frequently sticks in the flush position letting water run constantly,
                             replace or adjust it.
                             Leaky toilets usually can be fixed inexpensively by replacing the flapper.
                             Install a toilet displacement device to cut down on the amount of water needed for each
                             flush. (Contrary to popular opinion a brick should not be used because it can dissolve
                             and the loose pieces can cause damage to the internal parts. Instead, place a
                             one-gallon plastic jug of water into the tank to displace toilet flow or purchase a device
                             available at most hardware and home centers designed for this purpose.) Be sure
                             installation does not interfere with the operating parts.
                             Consider purchasing a low-volume toilet that uses less than half the water of older
                             models. NOTE: In many areas, low-volume units are required by law.
                             Take shorter showers.
                             Replace your showerhead with an ultra-low-flow version.
                             Place a bucket in the shower to catch excess water for watering plants.
                             In the shower, turn the water on to get wet; turn off to lather up; then turn the water back
                             on to rinse. Repeat when washing your hair.
                             Don't let the water run while brushing your teeth, washing your face or shaving.
                             Avoid flushing the toilet unnecessarily. Dispose of tissues, insects, and other similar
                             waste in the trash rather than the toilet.

                        Kitchen

                             Operate automatic dishwashers only when they are fully loaded. Use the "light wash"
                             feature if available to use less water.
                             When hand washing dishes, save water by filling two containers - one with soapy water
                             and the other with rinse water containing a small amount of chlorine bleach.
                             Most dishwashers can clean soiled dishes very well, so dishes do not have to be rinsed
                             before washing. Just remove large particles of food, and put the soiled dishes in the
                             dishwasher.
                             Store drinking water in the refrigerator. Don't let the tap run while you are waiting for
                             water to cool.
                             Do not use running water to thaw meat or other frozen foods. Defrost food overnight in
                             the refrigerator, or use the defrost setting on your microwave.
                             Do not waste water waiting for it to get hot. Capture it for other uses such as plant
                             watering or heat it on the stove or in a microwave.
                             Clean vegetables in a pan filled with water rather than running water from the tap.
                             Re-use the water that vegetables are washed in for cleaning or watering plants.
                             Kitchen sink disposals require lots of water to operate properly. Start a compost pile as
                             an alternate method of disposing of food waste, or simply dispose of food in the
                             garbage.

                        Laundry

                             Operate automatic clothes washers only when they are fully loaded or set the water level
                             for the size of your load.

                        Long Term Indoor Water Conservation

                             Retrofit all household faucets by installing aerators with flow restrictors.
                             Consider installing an instant hot water heater on your sink
                             Insulate your water pipes to reduce heat loss and prevent them from breaking if you
                             have a sudden and unexpected spell of freezing weather.
                             If you are considering installing a new heat pump or air-conditioning system, the new
                             air-to-air models are just as efficient as the water-to-air type and do not waste water.
                             Install a water-softening systems only when the minerals in the water would damage
                             your pipes. Turn the softener off while on vacation.
                             When purchasing a new appliance, choose one that is more energy and water efficient.

                        Outdoor Use

                        General

                             If you have a well at home, check your pump periodically. If the pump turns on and off
                             while water is not being used, you have a leak.

                        Car Washing

                             Use a shut-off nozzle on your hose that can be adjusted down to a fine spray, so that
                             water flows only as needed. When finished, turn it off at the faucet instead of at the
                             nozzle to avoid leaks. Check hose connectors to make sure plastic or rubber washers
                             are in place to prevent leaks.
                             Consider using a commercial car wash that recycles water. If you wash your own car,
                             park on the grass so that you will be watering it at the same time.

                        Lawn Care

                             Don't overwater your lawn. Lawns only need to be watered every five to seven days in the
                             summer, and every 10 to 14 days in the winter. A heavy rain eliminates the need for
                             watering for up to two weeks. Most of the year, lawns only need one inch of water per
                             week. Buy a rain gauge so that you can better determine when to water.
                             Water in several short sessions rather than one long one in order for your lawn to better
                             absorb moisture. For example, water in ten-minute sessions spaced 30 minutes apart,
                             rather than one straight 30-minute session.
                             Water lawns during the designated hours.
                             Position sprinklers so water lands on the lawn and shrubs and not on paved areas.
                             Avoid sprinklers that spray a fine mist; most of the mist evaporates before it reaches the
                             lawn. Check sprinkler systems and timing devices regularly to be sure they operate
                             properly. Florida law now requires that "anyone who purchases and installs an
                             automatic lawn sprinkler system MUST install a rain sensor device or switch which will
                             override the irrigation cycle when adequate rainfall has occurred."
                             Raise the lawn mower blade to at least three inches, or to its highest level. A higher cut
                             encourages grass roots to grow deeper, shades the root system, and holds soil
                             moisture.
                             Avoid over fertilizing your lawn. Applying fertilizer increases the need for water. Apply
                             fertilizers that contain slow-release, water-insoluble forms of nitrogen.
                             Use a broom or blower instead of a hose to clean leaves and other debris from your
                             driveway or sidewalk.
                             Do not leave sprinklers or hoses unattended. A garden hose can pour out 600 gallons
                             or more in only a few hours. Use a bell timer to remind yourself to turn sprinklers off.

                        Pool

                             If you have a swimming pool, consider installing a new water-saving pool filter. A single
                             backflushing with a traditional filter uses 180 to 250 gallons of water.
                             Cover pools and spas to reduce evaporation of water.

                        Long Term Outdoor Conservation

                             Plant it smart. Plant native and/or drought-tolerant grasses, ground covers, shrubs and
                             trees. Once established, they do not need water as frequently and usually will survive a
                             dry period without watering. They also require less fertilizer or herbicides. Landscape
                             with plants that are heat and drought tolerant and that do not require much water to live.
                             Small plants require less water to become established. Group plants together based on
                             similar water needs.
                             Install irrigation devices that are the most water efficient for each use. Micro and drip
                             irrigation and soaker hoses are examples of efficient devices.
                             Use mulch to retain moisture in the soil. (Help preserve native cypress forests by
                             selecting other types of mulch such as treated melaleuca.) Mulch also helps control
                             weeds that compete with landscape plants for water.
                             Avoid purchasing recreational water toys that require a constant stream of water.
                             Avoid installing ornamental water features (such as fountains) unless they use recycled
                             water.

                        Within the Community

                             Participate in public water conservation meetings conducted by your local government,
                             utility or water management district.
                             Follow water conservation and water shortage rules in effect. You are included in the
                             restrictions even if your water comes from a private well.
                             Encourage your employer to promote water conservation in the workplace.
                             Patronize businesses that practice water conservation, such as restaurants that only
                             serve water upon request.
                             Report water losses (broken pipes, open hydrants, errant sprinklers, abandoned
                             free-flowing wells, etc.) to the property owner, local authorities or your water
                             management district.
                             Encourage your school system and local government to help develop and promote a
                             water conservation ethic.
                             Support projects that will lead to an increased use of reclaimed wastewater for irrigation
                             and other uses.
                             Support efforts that create a concern for water conservation among tourists.
                             Promote water conservation in community newsletters, on bulletin boards, and by
                             example. Encourage your friends, neighbors, and co-workers to "be water smart."
                             Conserve water because it is the right thing to do - even when someone else is footing
                             the bill, such as when you are staying at a hotel.
                             Try to do one thing each day that will result in saving water. Every drop counts!

                        Water Restrictions
                        In some communities where drought conditions exist, officials may recommend measures to
                        restrict use of water. These recommendations may include such procedures as watering lawns
                        and washing cars on odd or even days of the week, at night, or on weekends. The restrictions
                        may limit hours or prohibit use of water, or require use of hand watering instead of using
                        sprinkler systems that use much more water. You should check with your local authorities or
                        water utility for information on water restrictions that may be imposed for your area.

                        More Information
                        Please contact your local water authority or utility district, or your local emergency management
                        agency for information specific to your area.


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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Disaster Safety > Earthquake
                        Earthquake    Versión en Español

                        (PDF File)

                        See California Preparedness Materials for more earthquake
                        safety and preparedness information.

                        Prepare a Home Earthquake Plan

                             Choose a safe place in every room--under a sturdy table or
                             desk or against an inside wall where nothing can fall on you.
                             Practice DROP, COVER, AND HOLD ON at least twice a year. Drop under a sturdy
                             desk or table, hold on, and protect your eyes by pressing your face against your arm.
                             If there's no table or desk nearby, sit on the floor against an interior wall away from
                             windows, bookcases, or tall furniture that could fall on you. Teach children to DROP,
                             COVER, AND HOLD ON!
                             Choose an out-of-town family contact.
                             Consult a professional to find out additional ways you can protect your home, such
                             as bolting the house to its foundation and other structural mitigation techniques.
                             Take a first aid class from your local Red Cross chapter. Keep your training current.
                             Get training in how to use a fire extinguisher from your local fire department.
                             Inform babysitters and caregivers of your plan.

                        Eliminate Hazards, Including--

                             Bolting bookcases, china cabinets, and other tall furniture to wall studs.
                             Installing strong latches on cupboards.
                             Strapping the water heater to wall studs.

                        Prepare a Disaster Supplies Kit For Home and Car, Including--

                             First aid kit and essential medications.
                             Canned food and can opener.
                             At least three gallons of water per person.
                             Protective clothing, rainwear, and bedding or sleeping bags.
                             Battery-powered radio, flashlight, and extra batteries.
                             Special items for infant, elderly, or disabled family members.
                             Written instructions for how to turn off gas, electricity, and water if authorities advise
                             you to do so. (Remember, you'll need a professional to turn natural gas service back
                             on.)
                             Keeping essentials, such as a flashlight and sturdy shoes, by your bedside.

                        Know What to Do When the Shaking Begins

                             DROP, COVER, AND HOLD ON! Move only a few steps to a nearby safe place. Stay
                             indoors until the shaking stops and you're sure it's safe to exit. Stay away from
                             windows. In a high-rise building, expect the fire alarms and sprinklers to go off
                             during a quake.
                             If you are in bed, hold on and stay there, protecting your head with a pillow.
                             If you are outdoors, find a clear spot away from buildings, trees, and power lines.
                             Drop to the ground.
                             If you are in a car, slow down and drive to a clear place (as described above). Stay in
                             the car until the shaking stops.

                        Identify What to Do After the Shaking Stops

                             Check yourself for injuries. Protect yourself from further danger by putting on long
                             pants, a long-sleeved shirt, sturdy shoes, and work gloves.
                             Check others for injuries. Give first aid for serious injuries.
                             Look for and extinguish small fires. Eliminate fire hazards. Turn off the gas if you
                             smell gas or think it's leaking. (Remember, only a professional should turn it back
                             on.)
                             Listen to the radio for instructions.
                             Expect aftershocks. Each time you feel one, DROP, COVER, AND HOLD ON!
                             Inspect your home for damage. Get everyone out if your home is unsafe.
                             Use the telephone only to report life-threatening emergencies.

                        Your Local Red Cross Chapter Can Provide Additional Materials in English and Spanish:

                             "Are You Ready for a Fire?" (ARC 4456)
                             "Your Family Disaster Plan" (ARC 4466)
                             "Your Family Disaster Supplies Kit" (ARC 4463)

                        Materials for Children:

                             "Be Ready 1-2-3" involves puppets who give important safety information to children
                             ages 3-8 about residential fire safety, winter storms, and earthquakes.
                             "Disaster Preparedness Coloring Book" (PDF File) (ARC 2200, English, or ARC 2200S,
                             Spanish (PDF File)) for children ages 3-10.
                             "Adventures of the Disaster Dudes" (ARC 5024) video and Presenter's Guide for use
                             by an adult with children in grades 4-6.
                             "After the Quake" Coloring Book (ARC 2201, English, or ARC 2201S, Spanish)

                        And remember . . . when an earthquake, tornado, flood, fire, or other emergency happens in
                        your community, you can count on your local American Red Cross chapter to be there to
                        help you and your family. Your Red Cross is not a government agency and depends on
                        contributions of your time, money, and blood. For more information, please contact your
                        local American Red Cross chapter or emergency management office.

                        If you would like permission to use the information about earthquakes on this page in a
                        newsletter or other publication, or on your Website, please e-mail us at:
                        internet@usa.redcross.org


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY




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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Disaster Safety > Fire
                        Fire    Versión en Español
                        (PDF File)

                        Make Your Home Fire Safe

                             Smoke alarms save lives. Install a smoke alarm outside
                             each sleeping area and on each additional level of your
                             home.
                             If people sleep with doors closed, install smoke alarms
                             inside sleeping areas, too.
                             Use the test button to check each smoke alarm once a month. When necessary, replace
                             batteries immediately. Replace all batteries at least once a year.
                             Vacuum away cobwebs and dust from your smoke alarms monthly.
                             Smoke alarms become less sensitive over time. Replace your smoke alarms every ten
                             years.
                             Consider having one or more working fire extinguishers in your home. Get training from
                             the fire department in how to use them.
                             Consider installing an automatic fire sprinkler system in your home.

                        Plan Your Escape Routes

                             Determine at least two ways to escape from every room of your home.
                             Consider escape ladders for sleeping areas on the second or third floor. Learn how to
                             use them and store them near the window.
                             Select a location outside your home where everyone would meet after escaping.
                             Practice your escape plan at least twice a year.

                        Escape Safely

                             Once you are out, stay out! Call the fire department from a neighbor'
                             s home.
                             If you see smoke or fire in your first escape route, use your second way out. If you must
                             exit through smoke, crawl low under the smoke to your exit.
                             If you are escaping through a closed door, feel the door before opening it. If it is warm,
                             use your second way out.
                             If smoke, heat, or flames block your exit routes, stay in the room with the door closed.
                             Signal for help using a bright-colored cloth at the window. If there is a telephone in the
                             room, call the fire department and tell them where you are.

                        Your Local Red Cross Chapter Can Provide Additional Materials in English and Spanish:

                             "Fire Safety Pictorial Brochure" (ARC 5036) designed for people of low literacy. Contains
                             few words, and those are in both English and Spanish.
                             "Safe Living in Your Manufactured Home" (ARC 4465) gives fire, flood, and tornado
                             safety information for people who live in manufactured (mobile) homes.
                             "Wildfire...Are You Prepared?" (ARC 5020)
                             "Your Family Disaster Plan" (ARC 4466)
                             "Your Family Disaster Supplies Kit" (ARC 4463)

                        Materials for Children:

                             "Be Ready 1-2-3" features a children's workbook (ARC 5017), Instructor's Manual (ARC
                             5018), "How-To" Guide (ARC 5019), and "completion certificate" (C-814) that involve
                             puppets who give important safety information to children ages 3-8 about residential fire
                             safety, winter storms, and earthquakes.
                             "Fire Safety Activity Poster" (ARC 5034) is an 18" x 24" poster designed for children ages
                             4-8 on one side, and 8-12 on the other. Contains a maze, puzzle, word find, and coloring
                             pages. In English and Spanish.
                             Fire Prevention Week Campaign Kit (ARC 5016)
                             Contains ideas, stories, sample news releases, camera-ready artwork, and information
                             for use during Fire Prevention Week, and, since most of the information in the kit is
                             undated, throughout the year.
                             "Disaster Preparedness Coloring Book" (PDF File) (ARC 2200, English, or ARC 2200S,
                             Spanish) for children ages 3-10.
                             "Adventures of the Disaster Dudes" (ARC 5024) video and Presenter's Guide for use by
                             an adult with children in grades 4-6.

                        And remember . . . when a fire, earthquake, tornado, flood, or other emergency happens in your
                        community, you can count on your local American Red Cross chapter to be there to help you
                        and your family. Your Red Cross is not a government agency and depends on contributions of
                        your time, money, and blood. For more information, please contact your local American Red
                        Cross chapter or emergency management office.

                        If you would like permission to use the information about fires on this page in a newsletter or
                        other publication, or on your Website, please e-mail us at: internet@usa.redcross.org


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY




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      Tsunami

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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Disaster Safety > Floods
                        Flood and Flash Flood    Versión en Español

                        (PDF File)

                        Table of Contents

                        Know What To Expect
                        How to Reduce Potential Flood Damage
                        How Long Will a Flood Take to Develop?
                        Flash Floods
                        Prepare a Family Disaster Plan
                        Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit
                        What to Do When a Flood Watch Is Issued
                        What to Do When a Flood Warning Is Issued
                        What to Do When a Flash Flood Watch Is Issued
                        What to Do When a Flash Flood Warning Is Issued
                        More Information

                        See Also...

                        Flash Floods and Floods... the Awesome Power, In-depth information about floods and flash
                        floods from the National Weather Service

                        Project Safeside: Keeping You Ahead of the Storm. Information from the American Red Cross
                        and The Weather Channel on flood safety

                        If you have been affected by a flood, see also:
                         "Repairing Your Flooded Home"

                        Know What to Expect

                             Know your area's flood risk--if unsure, call your local Red Cross chapter, emergency
                             management office, or planning and zoning department.
                             If it has been raining hard for several hours, or steadily raining for several days, be alert
                             to the possibility of a flood.
                             Listen to local radio or TV stations for flood information.

                        Reduce Potential Flood Damage By--

                             Raising your furnace, water heater, and electric panel if they are in areas of your home
                             that may be flooded.
                             Consult with a professional for further information if this and other damage reduction
                             measures can be taken.

                        Floods Can Take Several Hours to Days to Develop

                             A flood WATCH means a flood is possible in your area.
                             A flood WARNING means flooding is already occurring or will occur soon in your area.

                        Flash Floods Can Take Only a Few Minutes to a Few Hours to Develop

                             A flash flood WATCH means flash flooding is possible in your area.
                             A flash flood WARNING means a flash flood is occurring or will occur very soon.

                        Prepare a Family Disaster Plan

                             Check to see if you have insurance that covers flooding. If not, find out how to get flood
                             insurance.
                             Keep insurance policies, documents, and other valuables in a safe-deposit box.

                        Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit Containing--

                             First aid kit and essential medications.
                             Canned food and can opener.
                             At least three gallons of water per person
                             Protective clothing, rainwear, and bedding or sleeping bags.
                             Battery-powered radio, flashlight, and extra batteries.
                             Special items for infants, elderly, or disabled family members.
                             Written instructions for how to turn off electricity, gas and water if authorities advise you
                             to do so. (Remember, you'll need a professional to turn them back on.)
                             Identify where you could go if told to evacuate. Choose several places . . . a friend's
                             home in another town, a motel, or a shelter.

                        When a Flood WATCH Is Issued . . .

                             Move your furniture and valuables to higher floors of your home.
                             Fill your car's gas tank, in case an evacuation notice is issued.

                        When a Flood WARNING Is Issued . . .

                             Listen to local radio and TV stations for information and advice. If told to evacuate, do so
                             as soon as possible.

                        When a Flash Flood WATCH Is Issued . . .

                             Be alert to signs of flash flooding and be ready to evacuate on a moment's notice.

                        When a Flash Flood WARNING Is Issued . . .

                             Or if you think it has already started, evacuate immediately. You may have only seconds
                             to escape. Act quickly!
                             Move to higher ground away from rivers, streams, creeks, and storm drains. Do not drive
                             around barricades . . . they are there for your safety.
                             If your car stalls in rapidly rising waters, abandon it immediately and climb to higher
                             ground.

                        Your Local Red Cross Chapter Can Provide Additional Materials in English and Spanish:

                             "Safe Living in Your Manufactured Home" (ARC 4465) gives fire, flood, and tornado
                             safety information for people who live in manufactured (mobile) homes.
                             "Are You Ready for a Thunderstorm?" (ARC 5009)
                             "Are You Ready for a Hurricane?" (ARC 4454)
                             "Are You Ready for a Tornado?" (ARC 4457)
                             "Avoiding Flood Damage" (ARC 1215)
                             "Your Family Disaster Plan" (ARC 4466)
                             "Your Family Disaster Supplies Kit" (ARC 4463)
                             "Repairing Your Flooded Home" (ARC 4477, English, ARC 4477S, Spanish). This is a
                             66-page book designed for homeowners who may engage in flood clean-up and repair
                             of flood-damaged homes.

                        Materials for Children:

                             "Disaster Preparedness Coloring Book" (PDF File) (ARC 2200, English, or ARC 2200S,
                             Spanish (PDF File)) for use by children 3-10.
                             "Adventures of the Disaster Dudes" (ARC 5024) video and Presenter's Guide for use by
                             an adult with children in grades 4-6.
                             "After the Flood" Coloring Book (ARC 2204, English, or ARC 2204S, Spanish)

                        And remember . . . when a flood, earthquake, tornado, fire, or other emergency happens in your
                        community, you can count on your local American Red Cross chapter to be there to help you
                        and your family. Your Red Cross is not a government agency and depends on contributions of
                        your time, money, and blood. For more information, please contact your local American Red
                        Cross chapter or emergency management office.

                        If you would like permission to use the information about floods/flash floods on this page in a
                        newsletter or other publication, or on your Website, please e-mail us at:
                        internet@usa.redcross.org


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY




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      > Heat Waves

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      Mudslides

      Thunderstorms

      Tornado

      Tsunami

      Volcanoes

      Wild Fires

      Winter Storms












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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Disaster Safety > Heat Waves
                        Heat Waves    Versión en Español

                        (PDF File)

                        Table of Contents

                        Know What the Terms Mean
                        What To Do When a Heat Wave Is Predicted or Happening
                        Signals of Heat Emergencies
                        Treatment of Heat Emergencies
                        More Information

                        See also...

                        Project Safeside: Keeping You Ahead of the Storm. Information from the American Red Cross
                        and The Weather Channel on heat safety

                        Know What These Terms Mean...

                             Heat wave: Prolonged period of excessive heat and humidity. The National Weather
                             Service steps up its procedures to alert the public during these periods of excessive
                             heat and humidity.
                             Heat index: A number in degrees Fahrenheit (F) that tells how hot it really feels when
                             relative humidity is added to the actual air temperature. Exposure to full sunshine can
                             increase the heat index by 15 degrees F.
                             Heat cramps: Heat cramps are muscular pains and spasms due to heavy exertion.
                             Although heat cramps are the least severe, they are an early signal that the body is
                             having trouble with the heat.
                             Heat exhaustion: Heat exhaustion typically occurs when people exercise heavily or work
                             in a hot, humid place where body fluids are lost through heavy sweating. Blood flow to
                             the skin increases, causing blood flow to decrease to the vital organs. This results in a
                             form of mild shock. If not treated, the victim may suffer heat stroke.
                             Heat stroke: Heat stroke is life-threatening. The victim's temperature control system,
                             which produces sweating to cool the body, stops working. The body temperature can
                             rise so high that brain damage and death may result if the body is not cooled quickly.
                             Sunstroke: Another term for heat stroke.

                        If a Heat Wave Is Predicted or Happening...

                             Slow down. Avoid strenuous activity. If you must do strenuous activity, do it during the
                             coolest part of the day, which is usually in the morning between 4:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m.
                             Stay indoors as much as possible. If air conditioning is not available, stay on the lowest
                             floor, out of the sunshine. Try to go to a public building with air conditioning each day for
                             several hours. Remember, electric fans do not cool the air, but they do help sweat
                             evaporate, which cools your body.
                             Wear lightweight, light-colored clothing. Light colors will reflect away some of the sun's
                             energy.
                             Drink plenty of water regularly and often. Your body needs water to keep cool.
                             Drink plenty of fluids even if you do not feel thirsty.
                             Water is the safest liquid to drink during heat emergencies. Avoid drinks with alcohol or
                             caffeine in them. They can make you feel good briefly, but make the heat's effects on
                             your body worse. This is especially true about beer, which dehydrates the body.
                             Eat small meals and eat more often. Avoid foods that are high in protein, which increase
                             metabolic heat.
                             Avoid using salt tablets unless directed to do so by a physician.

                        Signals of Heat Emergencies...

                             Heat exhaustion: Cool, moist, pale, or flushed skin; heavy sweating; headache; nausea
                             or vomiting; dizziness; and exhaustion. Body temperature will be near normal.
                             Heat stroke: Hot, red skin; changes in consciousness; rapid, weak pulse; and rapid,
                             shallow breathing. Body temperature can be very high-- as high as 105 degrees F. If the
                             person was sweating from heavy work or exercise, skin may be wet; otherwise, it will
                             feel dry.

                        Treatment of Heat Emergencies...

                             Heat cramps: Get the person to a cooler place and have him or her rest in a comfortable
                             position. Lightly stretch the affected muscle and replenish fluids. Give a half glass of
                             cool water every 15 minutes. Do not give liquids with alcohol or caffeine in them, as they
                             can make conditions worse.
                             Heat exhaustion: Get the person out of the heat and into a cooler place. Remove or
                             loosen tight clothing and apply cool, wet cloths, such as towels or sheets. If the person
                             is conscious, give cool water to drink. Make sure the person drinks slowly. Give a half
                             glass of cool water every 15 minutes. Do not give liquids that contain alcohol or caffeine.
                             Let the victim rest in a comfortable position, and watch carefully for changes in his or her
                             condition.
                             Heat stroke: Heat stroke is a life-threatening situation. Help is needed fast. Call 9-1-1 or
                             your local emergency number. Move the person to a cooler place. Quickly cool the body.
                             Immerse victim in a cool bath, or wrap wet sheets around the body and fan it. Watch for
                             signals of breathing problems. Keep the person lying down and continue to cool the
                             body any way you can. If the victim refuses water or is vomiting or there are changes in
                             the level of consciousness, do not give anything to eat or drink.

                        Your Local Red Cross Chapter Can Provide Additional Materials in English and Spanish:

                             "Your Family Disaster Plan" (ARC 4466)
                             "Your Family Disaster Supplies Kit" (ARC 4463)

                        Materials for Children:

                             "Disaster Preparedness Coloring Book" (PDF File) (ARC 2200, English, or ARC 2200S,
                             Spanish (PDF File)) for children ages 3-10.
                             "Adventures of the Disaster Dudes" (ARC 5024) video and Presenter's Guide for use by
                             an adult with children in grades 4-6.

                        And remember . . . when a heatwave, earthquake, tornado, flood, fire, or other emergency
                        happens in your community, you can count on your local American Red Cross chapter to be
                        there to help you and your family. Your Red Cross is not a government agency and depends on
                        contributions of your time, money, and blood. For more information, please contact your local
                        American Red Cross chapter or emergency management office.

                        If you would like permission to use the information about heat waves on this page in a
                        newsletter or other publication, or on your Website, please e-mail us at:
                        internet@usa.redcross.org


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY




     Disaster Services --
      Disaster Safety

      Interactive Map

      Chemical
      Emergencies

      Drought

      Earthquakes

      Fires

      Floods

      Heat Waves

      > Hurricanes

      Mudslides

      Thunderstorms

      Tornado

      Tsunami

      Volcanoes

      Wild Fires

      Winter Storms












      Find Your Local
      Red Cross
     Enter Zip Code Here:
     



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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Disaster Safety > Hurricane
                        Hurricane    Versión en Español

                        (PDF File)

                        Table of Contents
                        Know What a Watch or Warning Means
                        Prepare a Personal Evacuation Plan
                        Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit
                        How to Prepare for High Winds
                        What to Do When a Hurricane Watch Is Issued
                        What to Do When A Hurricane Warning Is Issued
                        What to Do After a Hurricane Is Over
                        More Information

                        See also...

                        Hurricanes...Unleashing Nature's Fury, in-depth information about huricanes from the National
                        Weather Service

                        PDF version with full color photos of National Weather Service in-depth brochure on hurricanes
                        (Caution: this takes a long time to download)

                        PDF Version of "Against the Wind: Protecting Your Home From Hurricane Wind Damage"

                        Project Safeside: Keeping You Ahead of the Storm. Information from the American Red Cross
                        and The Weather Channel on hurricanes

                        Here's what you can do to prepare for such an emergency.

                        Know What Hurricane WATCH and WARNING Mean

                             WATCH: Hurricane conditions are possible in the specified area of the WATCH, usually
                             within 36 hours.
                             WARNING: Hurricane conditions are expected in the specified area of the WARNING,
                             usually within 24 hours.

                        Prepare a Personal Evacuation Plan

                             Identify ahead of time where you could go if you are told to evacuate. Choose several
                             places--a friend's home in another town, a motel, or a shelter.
                             Keep handy the telephone numbers of these places as well as a road map of your
                             locality. You may need to take alternative or unfamiliar routes if major roads are closed
                             or clogged.
                             Listen to NOAA Weather Radio or local radio or TV stations for evacuation instructions. If
                             advised to evacuate, do so immediately.

                        Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit Including the Following Items:

                             First aid kit and essential medications.
                             Canned food and can opener.
                             At least three gallons of water per person.
                             Protective clothing, rainwear, and bedding or sleeping bags.
                             Battery-powered radio, flashlight, and extra batteries.
                             Special items for infants, elderly, or disabled family members.
                             Written instructions on how to turn off electricity, gas and water if authorities advise you
                             to do so. (Remember, you'll need a professional to turn them back on.)

                        Prepare for High Winds

                             Install hurricane shutters or purchase precut 1/2" outdoor plywood boards for each
                             window of your home. Install anchors for the plywood and predrill holes in the plywood
                             so that you can put it up quickly.
                             Make trees more wind resistant by removing diseased and damaged limbs, then
                             strategically removing branches so that wind can blow through.

                        Know What to Do When a Hurricane WATCH Is Issued

                             Listen to NOAA Weather Radio or local radio or TV stations for up-to-date storm
                             information.
                             Prepare to bring inside any lawn furniture, outdoor decorations or ornaments, trash
                             cans, hanging plants, and anything else that can be picked up by the wind.
                             Prepare to cover all windows of your home. If shutters have not been installed, use
                             precut plywood as described above. Note: Tape does not prevent windows from
                             breaking, so taping windows is not recommended.
                             Fill your car's gas tank.
                             Recheck manufactured home tie-downs.
                             Check batteries and stock up on canned food, first aid supplies, drinking water, and
                             medications.

                        Know What to Do When a Hurricane WARNING Is Issued

                             Listen to the advice of local officials, and leave if they tell you to do so.
                             Complete preparation activities.
                             If you are not advised to evacuate, stay indoors, away from windows.
                             Be aware that the calm "eye" is deceptive; the storm is not over. The worst part of the
                             storm will happen once the eye passes over and the winds blow from the opposite
                             direction. Trees, shrubs, buildings, and other objects damaged by the first winds can be
                             broken or destroyed by the second winds.
                             Be alert for tornadoes. Tornadoes can happen during a hurricane and after it passes
                             over. Remain indoors, in the center of your home, in a closet or bathroom without
                             windows.
                             Stay away from flood waters. If you come upon a flooded road, turn around and go
                             another way. If you are caught on a flooded road and waters are rising rapidly around
                             you, get out of the car and climb to higher ground.

                        Know What to Do After a Hurricane Is Over

                             Keep listening to NOAA Weather Radio or local radio or TV stations for instructions.
                             If you evacuated, return home when local officials tell you it is safe to do so.
                             Inspect your home for damage.
                             Use flashlights in the dark; do not use candles.

                        Your Local Red Cross Chapter Can Provide Additional Materials in English and Spanish:

                             "Against the Wind: Protecting Your Home from Hurricane Wind Damage" (PDF File)
                             (ARC 5023)
                             "Are You Ready for a Thunderstorm?" (ARC 5009)
                             "Are You Ready for a Flood or Flash Flood?" (ARC 4458)
                             "Are You Ready for a Tornado?" (ARC 4457)
                             "Your Family Disaster Plan" (ARC 4466)
                             "Your Family Disaster Supplies Kit" (ARC 4463)

                        Materials for Children:

                             "Jason and Robin's Awesome Hurricane Adventure" workbook (ARC 5044) and video
                             (ARC 5044V) designed for children in grades 4-6.
                             "Disaster Preparedness Coloring Book" (PDF File) (ARC 2200, English, or ARC 2200S,
                             Spanish (PDF File)) by children ages 3-10.
                             "Adventures of the Disaster Dudes" (ARC 5024) video and Presenter's Guide for use by
                             an adult with children in grades 4-6.
                             "After the Storm" Coloring Book (ARC 2206, English, or ARC 2206S, Spanish)


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY




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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Disaster Safety > Mudslide
                       Landslide and Debris Flow (Mudslide)
                       (PDF File)

                       Why Talk About Landslides?
                       What Are Landslides and Debris Flows, and What Causes Them
                       Awareness Information
                       Plan for a Landslide
                       How to Protect Your Property
                       Media and Community Education Ideas
                       What to Do Before Intense Storms
                       What to Do During Intense Storms
                       What to Do if You Suspect Imminent Landslide Danger
                       What to Do During a Landslide
                       What to Do After a Landslide


                       Why Talk About Landslides?

                       Landslides are a serious geologic hazard common to almost every state in the United States. It is
                       estimated that nationally they cause up to $2 billion in damages and from 25 to 50 deaths
                       annually. Globally, landslides cause billions of dollars in damage and thousands of deaths and
                       injuries each year. Individuals can take steps to reduce their personal risk. Know about the
                       hazard potential where you live, take steps to reduce your risk, and practice preparedness plans.



                       Landslides are a serious geologic hazard common to almost every state in the United States. It is estimated
                       that nationally they cause up to $2 billion in damages and from 25 to 50 deaths annually.


                                                                                 Back to Top

                       What Are Landslides and Debris Flows, and What Causes Them?

                       Some landslides move slowly and cause damage gradually, whereas others move so rapidly
                       that they can destroy property and take lives suddenly and unexpectedly. Gravity is the force
                       driving landslide movement. Factors that allow the force of gravity to overcome the resistance of
                       earth material to landslide movement include: saturation by water, steepening of slopes by
                       erosion or construction, alternate freezing or thawing, earthquake shaking, and volcanic
                       eruptions.

                       Landslides are typically associated with periods of heavy rainfall or rapid snow melt and tend to
                       worsen the effects of flooding that often accompanies these events. In areas burned by forest and
                       brush fires, a lower threshold of precipitation may initiate landslides.

                       Debris flows, sometimes referred to as mudslides, mudflows, lahars, or debris avalanches, are
                       common types of fast-moving landslides. These flows generally occur during periods of intense
                       rainfall or rapid snow melt. They usually start on steep hillsides as shallow landslides that liquefy
                       and accelerate to speeds that are typically about 10 miles per hour, but can exceed 35 miles per
                       hour. The consistency of debris flows ranges from watery mud to thick, rocky mud that can carry
                       large items such as boulders, trees, and cars. Debris flows from many different sources can
                       combine in channels, and their destructive power may be greatly increased. They continue
                       flowing down hills and through channels, growing in volume with the addition of water, sand,
                       mud, boulders, trees, and other materials. When the flows reach flatter ground, the debris
                       spreads over a broad area, sometimes accumulating in thick deposits that can wreak havoc in
                       developed areas.

                       Among the most destructive types of debris flows are those that accompany volcanic eruptions. A
                       spectacular example in the United States was a massive debris flow resulting from the 1980
                       eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Areas near the bases of many volcanoes in the
                       Cascade Mountain Range of California, Oregon, and Washington are at risk from the same types
                       of flows during future volcanic eruptions.

                       Wildfires can also lead to destructive debris-flow activity. In July 1994, a severe wildfire swept
                       Storm King Mountain, west of Glenwood Springs, Colorado, denuding the slopes of vegetation.
                       Heavy rains on the mountain in September resulted in numerous debris flows, one of which
                       blocked Interstate 70 and threatened to dam the Colorado River.

                       Learn whether landslides or debris flows have occurred in your area by contacting local officials,
                       state geological surveys or departments of natural resources, and university departments of
                       geology.


                                                                                 Back to Top

                       Awareness Information

                       Areas that are generally prone to landslide hazards include existing old landslides; the bases
                       of steep slopes; the bases of drainage channels; and developed hillsides where leach-field
                       septic systems are used.

                       Areas that are typically considered safe from landslides include areas that have not moved in
                       the past; relatively flat-lying areas away from sudden changes in slope; and areas at the top or
                       along ridges, set back from the tops of slopes.

                       Learn what to watch for prior to major landsliding. Look for patterns of storm-water drainage on
                       slopes near your home, noting especially the places where runoff water converges, increasing
                       flow over soil-covered slopes. Check hillsides around your home for any signs of land movement,
                       such as small landslides or debris flows or progressively tilting trees.


                                                                                 Back to Top

                       Plan for a Landslide

                       Develop a Family Disaster Plan. Please see the "Family Disaster Plan"section for general family
                       planning information. Develop landslide-specific planning. Learn about landslide risk in your
                       area. Contact local officials, state geological surveys or departments of natural resources, and
                       university departments of geology. Landslides occur where they have before, and in identifiable
                       hazard locations. Ask for information on landslides in your area, specific information on areas
                       vulnerable to landslides, and request a professional referral for a very detailed site analysis of
                       your property, and corrective measures you can take, if necessary.

                       If you are at risk from landslides:

                            Talk to your insurance agent. Debris flow may be covered by flood insurance policies
                            from the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).

                            Develop an evacuation plan. (See "Evacuation" in the "Family Disaster Plan" section.) You
                            should know where to go if you have to leave. Trying to make plans at the last minute can
                            be upsetting and create confusion.

                            Discuss landslides and debris flow with your family. Everyone should know what to do in
                            case all family members are not together. Discussing disaster ahead of time helps
                            reduce fear and lets everyone know how to respond during a landslide or debris flow.



                       Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit

                       Please see the section "Disaster Supplies Kit" for general supplies kit information.
                       Landslide-specific supplies should include the following:

                            Disaster Suplies Kit basics
                            Evacuation Supplies Kit



                                                                                 Back to Top

                       How to Protect Your Property

                            If your property is in a landslide-prone area, contract with a private consulting
                            company specializing in earth movement for opinions and advice on landslide
                            problems and on corrective measures you can take. Such companies would likely be
                            those specializing in geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, or civil
                            engineering. Local officials could possibly advise you as to the best kind of professional
                            to contact in your area. Taking steps without consulting a professional could make your
                            situation worse.

                            Install flexible pipe fittings to avoid gas or water leaks. Flexible fittings will be less likely
                            to break.


                                                                                 Back to Top

                       Media and Community Education Ideas

                            In an area prone to landslides, publish a special newspaper section with emergency
                            information on landslides and debris flows. Localize the information by including the
                            phone numbers of local emergency services offices, the American Red Cross chapter,
                            and hospitals.

                            Report on what city and county governments are doing to reduce the possibility of
                            landslides. Interview local officials about local land- use zoning regulations.

                            Interview local officials and major insurers regarding the National Flood Insurance
                            Program. Find out if debris flow is covered by flood insurance policies from the National
                            Flood Insurance Program and contact your local emergency management office to learn
                            more about the program.

                            Work with local emergency services and American Red Cross officials to prepare special
                            reports for people with mobility impairments on what to do if evacuation is ordered.

                            Support your local government in efforts to develop and enforce land-use and building
                            ordinances that regulate construction in areas susceptible to landslides and debris flows.
                            Buildings should be located away from steep slopes, streams and rivers,
                            intermittent-stream channels, and the mouths of mountain channels.


                                                                                 Back to Top

                       What to Do Before Intense Storms

                            Become familiar with the land around you. Learn whether landslides and debris flows
                            have occurred in your area by contacting local officials, state geological surveys or
                            departments of natural resources, and university departments of geology. Knowing the
                            land can help you assess your risk for danger.

                            Watch the patterns of storm-water drainage on slopes near your home, and especially
                            the places where runoff water converges, increasing flow over soil-covered slopes.
                            Watch the hillsides around your home for any signs of land movement, such as small
                            landslides or debris flows, or progressively tilting trees. Watching small changes could
                            alert you to the potential of a greater landslide threat.


                                                                                 Back to Top

                       What to Do During Intense Storms

                            Stay alert and awake. Many debris-flow fatalities occur when people are sleeping. Listen
                            to a NOAA Weather Radio or portable, battery-powered radio or television for warnings of
                            intense rainfall. Be aware that intense, short bursts of rain may be particularly dangerous,
                            especially after longer periods of heavy rainfall and damp weather.

                            If you are in areas susceptible to landslides and debris flows, consider leaving if it is
                            safe to do so. Remember that driving during an intense storm can be hazardous. If you
                            remain at home, move to a second story if possible. Staying out of the path of a landslide
                            or debris flow saves lives.

                            Listen for any unusual sounds that might indicate moving debris, such as trees
                            cracking or boulders knocking together. A trickle of flowing or falling mud or debris may
                            precede larger landslides. Moving debris can flow quickly and sometimes without
                            warning.

                            If you are near a stream or channel, be alert for any sudden increase or decrease in
                            water flow and for a change from clear to muddy water. Such changes may indicate
                            landslide activity upstream, so be prepared to move quickly. Don't delay! Save yourself, not
                            your belongings.

                            Be especially alert when driving. Embankments along roadsides are particularly
                            susceptible to landslides. Watch the road for collapsed pavement, mud, fallen rocks, and
                            other indications of possible debris flows.


                                                                                 Back to Top

                       What to Do if You Suspect Imminent Landslide Danger

                            Contact your local fire, police, or public works department. Local officials are the best
                            persons able to assess potential danger.

                            Inform affected neighbors. Your neighbors may not be aware of potential hazards.
                            Advising them of a potential threat may help save lives. Help neighbors who may need
                            assistance to evacuate.

                            Evacuate. Getting out of the path of a landslide or debris flow is your best protection.


                                                                                 Back to Top

                       What to Do During a Lanslide

                            Quickly move out of the path of the landslide or debris flow. Moving away from the path
                            of the flow to a stable area will reduce your risk.

                            If escape is not possible, curl into a tight ball and protect your head. A tight ball will
                            provide the best protection for your body.


                                                                                 Back to Top

                       What to Do After a Landslide

                            Stay away from the slide area. There may be danger of additional slides.

                            Check for injured and trapped persons near the slide, without entering the direct slide
                            area. Direct rescuers to their locations.

                            Help a neighbor who may require special assistance--infants, elderly people, and
                            people with disabilities. Elderly people and people with disabilities may require
                            additional assistance. People who care for them or who have large families may need
                            additional assistance in emergency situations.

                            Listen to local radio or television stations for the latest emergency information.

                            Watch for flooding, which may occur after a landslide or debris flow. Floods
                            sometimes follow landslides and debris flows because they may both be started by the
                            same event.

                            Look for and report broken utility lines to appropriate authorities. Reporting potential
                            hazards will get the utilities turned off as quickly as possible, preventing further hazard
                            and injury.

                            Check the building foundation, chimney, and surrounding land for damage. Damage to
                            foundations, chimneys, or surrounding land may help you assess the safety of the area.

                            Replant damaged ground as soon as possible since erosion caused by loss of ground
                            cover can lead to flash flooding.

                            Seek the advice of a geotechnical expert for evaluating landslide hazards or designing
                            corrective techniques to reduce landslide risk. A professional will be able to advise you
                            of the best ways to prevent or reduce landslide risk, without creating further hazard.


                                                                                 Back to Top

                       Produced by the National Disaster Education Coalition: American Red Cross, FEMA, IAEM, IBHS,
                       NFPA, NWS, USDA/CSREES, and USGS

                       This information is in the public domain and is intended to be used and shared without copyright
                       restrictions. If you wish to cite the source when you use this material, the following is suggested:
                       From: Talking About Disaster: Guide for Standard Messages. Produced by the National Disaster
                       Education Coalition, Washington, D.C., 1999.


        © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY




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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Disaster Safety > Severe Thunderstorm
                        Severe Thunderstorm    Versión en Español

                        (PDF File)

                        Table of Contents

                        Before Lightning Strikes
                        When a Storm Approaches
                        What To Do if Caught Outside
                        Protecting Yourself Outside
                        What To Do After the Storm Passes
                        What To Do if Someone Is Struck by Lightning
                        More Information

                        Before Lightning Strikes...

                             Keep an eye on the sky. Look for darkening
                             skies, flashes of light, or increasing wind.
                             Listen for the sound of thunder.
                             If you can hear thunder, you are close
                             enough to the storm to be struck by
                             lightning. Go to safe shelter immediately.
                             Listen to NOAA Weather Radio, commercial
                             radio, or television for the latest weather
                             forecasts.

                        When a Storm Approaches...

                             Find shelter in a building or car. Keep car
                             windows closed and avoid convertibles.
                             Telephone lines and metal pipes can
                             conduct electricity. Unplug appliances. Avoid using the telephone or any electrical
                             appliances. (Leaving electric lights on, however, does not increase the chances of your
                             home being struck by lightning.)
                             Avoid taking a bath or shower, or running water for any other purpose.
                             Turn off the air conditioner. Power surges from lightning can overload the compressor,
                             resulting in a costly repair job!
                             Draw blinds and shades over windows. If windows break due to objects blown by the
                             wind, the shades will prevent glass from shattering into your home.

                        If Caught Outside...

                             If you are in the woods, take shelter under the shorter trees.
                             If you are boating or swimming, get to land and find shelter immediately!

                        Protecting Yourself Outside...

                             Go to a low-lying, open place away from trees, poles, or metal objects. Make sure the
                             place you pick is not subject to flooding.
                             Be a very small target! Squat low to the ground. Place your hands on your knees with
                             your head between them. Make yourself the smallest target possible.
                             Do not lie flat on the ground--this will make you a larger target!

                        After the Storm Passes...

                             Stay away from storm-damaged areas.
                             Listen to the radio for information and instructions.

                        If Someone is Struck by Lightning...

                             People struck by lightning carry no electrical charge and can be handled safely.
                             Call for help. Get someone to dial 9-1-1 or your local Emergency Medical Services (EMS)
                             number.
                             The injured person has received an electrical shock and may be burned, both where
                             they were struck and where the electricity left their body. Check for burns in both places.
                             Being struck by lightning can also cause nervous system damage, broken bones, and
                             loss of hearing or eyesight.
                             Give first aid. If breathing has stopped, begin rescue breathing. If the heart has stopped
                             beating, a trained person should give CPR. If the person has a pulse and is breathing,
                             look and care for other possible injuries. Learn first aid and CPR by taking a Red Cross
                             first aid and CPR course. call your local Red Cross chapter for class schedules and
                             fees.

                        Your Local Red Cross Chapter Can Provide Additional Materials in English and Spanish:

                             "Are You Ready for a Tornado?" (ARC 4457)
                             "Are You Ready for a Flood or Flash Flood?" (ARC 4458)
                             "Your Family Disaster Plan" (ARC 4466)
                             "Your Family Disaster Supplies Kit" (ARC 4463)

                        Materials for Children:

                             "Disaster Preparedness Coloring Book" (PDF File) (ARC 2200, English, or Spanish) for
                             children ages 3-10.
                             "Adventures of the Disaster Dudes" (ARC 5024) video and Presenter's Guide for use by
                             an adult with children in grades 4-6.

                        And remember . . . when a thunderstorm, earthquake, tornado, flood, fire, or other emergency
                        happens in your community, you can count on your local American Red Cross chapter to be
                        there to help you and your family. Your Red Cross is not a government agency and depends on
                        contributions of your time, money, and blood. For more information, please contact your local
                        American Red Cross chapter or emergency management office.

                        If you would like permission to use the information about thunderstorms on this page in a
                        newsletter or other publication, or on your Website, please e-mail us at:
                        internet@usa.redcross.org


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY




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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Disaster Safety > Tornado
                        Tornado    Versión en Español

                        (PDF File)

                        Table of Contents

                        Prepare a Home Tornado Plan
                        Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit
                        Stay Tuned for Storm Warnings
                        What To Do When a Storm Watch Is Issued
                        What To Do When a Storm Warning Is Issued
                        After a Tornado Passes
                        More Information

                        See also...

                        Thunderstorms...Tornadoes...Lightning...Nature's Most Violent Storms, in-depth information
                        about tornados from the National Weather Service

                        PDF version with full color photos of National Weather Service in-depth brochure on tornadoes
                        (Caution: this takes a long time to download)

                        Project Safeside: Keeping you Ahead of the Storm. Information from the American Red Cross
                        and The Weather Channel on tornadoes

                        Prepare a Home Tornado Plan

                             Pick a place where family members could gather if a tornado is headed your way. It
                             could be your basement or, if there is no basement, a center hallway, bathroom, or
                             closet on the lowest floor. Keep this place uncluttered.
                             If you are in a high-rise building, you may not have enough time to go to the lowest floor.
                             Pick a place in a hallway in the center of the building.

                        Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit Containing--

                             First aid kit and essential medications.
                             Canned food and can opener.
                             At least three gallons of water per person.
                             Protective clothing, bedding, or sleeping bags.
                             Battery-powered radio, flashlight, and extra batteries.
                             Special items for infant, elderly, or disabled family members.
                             Written instructions on how to turn off electricity, gas, and water if authorities advise you
                             to do so. (Remember, you'll need a professional to turn natural gas service back on.)

                        Stay Tuned for Storm Warnings

                             Listen to your local radio and TV stations for updated storm information.
                             Know what a tornado WATCH and WARNING means:
                                  A tornado WATCH means a tornado is possible in your area.
                                  A tornado WARNING means a tornado has been sighted and may be headed for
                                  your area. Go to safety immediately.
                             Tornado WATCHES and WARNINGS are issued by county or parish.

                        When a Tornado WATCH Is Issued...

                             Listen to local radio and TV stations for further updates.
                             Be alert to changing weather conditions. Blowing debris or the sound of an approaching
                             tornado may alert you. Many people say it sounds like a freight train.

                        When a Tornado WARNING Is Issued...

                             If you are inside, go to the safe place you picked to protect yourself from glass and other
                             flying objects. The tornado may be approaching your area.
                             If you are outside, hurry to the basement of a nearby sturdy building or lie flat in a ditch or
                             low-lying area.
                             If you are in a car or mobile home, get out immediately and head for safety (as above).

                        After the Tornado Passes...

                             Watch out for fallen power lines and stay out of the damaged area.
                             Listen to the radio for information and instructions.
                             Use a flashlight to inspect your home for damage.
                             Do not use candles at any time.

                        Your Local Red Cross Chapter Can Provide Additional Materials in English and Spanish:

                             "Safe Living in Your Manufactured Home" (ARC 4465) gives fire, flood, and tornado
                             safety information for people who live in manufactured (mobile) homes.
                             "Are You Ready for a Thunderstorm?" (ARC 5009)
                             "Are You Ready for a Flood or Flash Flood?" (ARC 4458)
                             "Your Family Disaster Plan" (ARC 4466)
                             "Your Family Disaster Supplies Kit" (ARC 4463)

                        Materials for Children:

                             "Disaster Preparedness Coloring Book" (PDF File) (ARC 2200, English, or Spanish) for
                             children ages 3-10.
                             "Adventures of the Disaster Dudes" (ARC 5024) video and Presenter's Guide for use by
                             an adult with children in grades 4-6.
                             "After the Tornado" Coloring Book (ARC 2205, English, or ARC 2205S, Spanish)

                        To get copies of American Red Cross Community Disaster Education materials, contact your local Red Cross
                        chapter.

                        And remember . . . when a tornado, flood, earthquake, fire, or other emergency happens in your
                        community, you can count on your local American Red Cross chapter to be there to help you
                        and your family. Your Red Cross is not a government agency and depends on contributions of
                        your time, money, and blood. For more information, please contact your local American Red
                        Cross chapter or emergency management office.

                        If you would like permission to use the information about tornadoes on this page in a
                        newsletter or other publication, or on your Website, please e-mail us at:
                        internet@usa.redcross.org


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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Disaster Safety > Tsunami
                       Tsunami
                       (PDF File)

                       Why Talk About Tsunamis?
                       What Are Tsunamis, and What Causes Them?
                       Awareness Information
                       Plan for a Tsunami
                       How to Protect Your Property
                       Media and Community Education Ideas
                       What to Do if You Feel a Strong Coastal Earthquake
                       What to Do When a Tsunami WATCH Is Issued
                       What to Do When a Tsunami WARNING Is Issued
                       What to Do After a Tsunami


                       Why Talk About Tsunamis?

                       Twenty-four tsunamis have caused damage in the United States and its territories during the last
                       204 years. Just since 1946, six tsunamis have killed more than 350 people and caused a half
                       billion dollars of property damage in Hawaii, Alaska, and the West Coast. As a tsunami nears the
                       coastline, it may rise to several feet or, in rare cases, tens of feet, and can cause great loss of life
                       and property damage when it comes ashore. Tsunamis can travel upstream in coastal estuaries
                       and rivers, with damaging waves extending farther inland than the immediate coast. A tsunami
                       can occur during any season of the year and at any time, day or night.



                       Since 1946, six tsunamis have killed more than 350 people and damaged a half billion dollars of property in
                       Hawaii, Alaska, and the West Coast.


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                       What Are Tsunamis, and What Causes Them?

                       Tsunamis are ocean waves produced by earthquakes or underwater landslides. The word is
                       Japanese and means "harbor wave," because of the devastating effects these waves have had
                       on low-lying Japanese coastal communities. Tsunamis are often incorrectly referred to as tidal
                       waves, but a tsunami is actually a series of waves that can travel at speeds averaging 450 (and
                       up to 600) miles per hour in the open ocean. In the open ocean, tsunamis would not be felt by
                       ships because the wavelength would be hundreds of miles long, with an amplitude of only a few
                       feet. This would also make them unnoticeable from the air. As the waves approach the coast,
                       their speed decreases and their amplitude increases. Unusual wave heights have been known
                       to be over 100 feet high. However, waves that are 10 to 20 feet high can be very destructive and
                       cause many deaths or injuries.

                       Tsunamis are most often generated by earthquake-induced movement of the ocean floor.
                       Landslides, volcanic eruptions, and even meteorites can also generate a tsunami. If a major
                       earthquake is felt, a tsunami could reach the beach in a few minutes, even before a warning is
                       issued. Areas at greatest risk are less than 25 feet above sea level and within one mile of the
                       shoreline. Most deaths caused by a tsunami are because of drowning. Associated risks include
                       flooding, contamination of drinking water, fires from ruptured tanks or gas lines, and the loss of
                       vital community infrastructure (police, fire, and medical facilities).

                       From an initial tsunami generating source area, waves travel outward in all directions much like
                       the ripples caused by throwing a rock into a pond. As these waves approach coastal areas, the
                       time between successive wave crests varies from 5 to 90 minutes. The first wave is usually not
                       the largest in the series of waves, nor is it the most significant. Furthermore, one coastal
                       community may experience no damaging waves while another, not that far away, may experience
                       destructive deadly waves. Depending on a number of factors, some low-lying areas could
                       experience severe inland inundation of water and debris of more than 1,000 feet.

                       Learn whether tsunamis have occurred in your area by contacting your local emergency
                       management office, National Weather Service office, or American Red Cross chapter. If you are in
                       a tsunami risk area, learn how to protect yourself, your family, and your property.


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                       Awareness Information

                       The West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WC/ATWC) is responsible for tsunami
                       warnings for California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and Alaska.

                       The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) is responsible for providing warnings to
                       international authorities, Hawaii, and U.S. territories within the Pacific basin. The two Tsunami
                       Warning Centers coordinate the information being disseminated.

                       All tsunamis are potentially dangerous, even though they may not damage every coastline they
                       strike. Damaging tsunamis are very rare. Our coastlines are vulnerable, but tsunamis are
                       infrequent. Understand the hazard and learn how to protect yourself, but don't let the threat of
                       tsunamis ruin your enjoyment of the beach.

                       The WC/ATWC and PTWC may issue the following bulletins:

                            WARNING: A tsunami was or may have been generated, which could cause damage;
                            therefore, people in the warned area are strongly advised to evacuate.

                            WATCH: A tsunami was or may have been generated, but is at least two hours travel time
                            to the area in watch status. Local officials should prepare for possible evacuation if their
                            area is upgraded to a warning.

                            ADVISORY: An earthquake has occurred in the Pacific basin, which might generate a
                            tsunami. WC/ATWC and PTWC will issue hourly bulletins advising of the situation.

                            INFORMATION: A message with information about an earthquake that is not expected to
                            generate a tsunami. Usually only one bulletin is issued.

                       Be familiar with the tsunami warning signs. A strong earthquake lasting 20 seconds or more
                       near the coast may generate a tsunami. A noticeable rapid rise or fall in coastal waters is also a
                       sign that a tsunami is approaching.

                       Tsunamis most frequently come onshore as a rapidly rising turbulent surge of water choked with
                       debris. They are not V-shaped or rolling waves, and are not "surfable."

                       Tsunamis may be locally generated or from a distant source. In 1992, the Cape Mendocino,
                       California, earthquake produced a tsunami that reached Eureka in about 20 minutes, and
                       Crescent City in 50 minutes. Although this tsunami had a wave height of about one foot and was
                       not destructive, it illustrates how quickly a wave can arrive at nearby coastal communities and
                       how long the danger can last.

                       In 1957, a distant-source tsunami generated by an earthquake in the Aleutian Islands in Alaska
                       struck Hawaii, 2,100 miles away. Hawaii experienced $5 million in damages from that tsunami.


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                       Plan for a Tsunami

                       Develop a Family Disaster Plan. Please see the "Family Disaster Plan" section for general family
                       planning information. Tsunami-specific planning should include the following:

                            Learn about tsunami risk in your community. Contact your local emergency
                            management office or American Red Cross chapter. Find out if your home, school,
                            workplace or other frequently visited locations are in tsunami hazard areas. Know the
                            height of your street above sea level and the distance of your street from the coast or other
                            high-risk waters. Evacuation orders may be based on these numbers.

                            If you are visiting an area at risk from tsunamis, check with the hotel, motel, or
                            campground operators for tsunami evacuation information and how you would be
                            warned. It is important to know designated escape routes before a warning is issued.

                       If you are at risk from tsunamis, do the following:

                            Plan an evacuation route from your home, school, workplace, or any other place you'll
                            be where tsunamis present a risk. If possible, pick an area 100 feet above sea level or
                            go up to two miles inland, away from the coastline. If you can't get this high or far, go as
                            high as you can. Every foot inland or upwards may make a difference. You should be able
                            to reach your safe location on foot within 15 minutes. After a disaster, roads may become
                            impassable or blocked. Be prepared to evacuate by foot if necessary. Footpaths normally
                            lead uphill and inland, while many roads parallel coastlines. Follow posted tsunami
                            evacuation routes; these will lead to safety. Local emergency management officials can
                            help advise you as to the best route to safety and likely shelter locations.

                            Practice your evacuation route. Familiarity may save your life. Be able to follow your
                            escape route at night and during inclement weather. Practicing your plan makes the
                            appropriate response more of a reaction, requiring less thinking during an actual
                            emergency situation.

                            Use a NOAA Weather Radio with a tone-alert feature to keep you informed of local
                            watches and warnings. The tone alert feature will warn you of potential danger even if you
                            are not currently listening to local radio or television stations.

                            Talk to your insurance agent. Homeowners' policies do not cover flooding from a
                            tsunami. Ask about the National Flood Insurance Program.

                            Discuss tsunami with your family. Everyone should know what to do in case all family
                            members are not together. Discussing tsunamis ahead of time will help reduce fear and
                            anxiety, and let everyone know how to respond. Review flood safety and preparedness
                            measures with your family.



                       Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit

                       Please see the section "Disaster Supplies Kit" for general supplies kit information.
                       Tsunami-specific supplies should include the following:

                            Evacuation Supplies Kit in an easy-to-carry contanier (backpack) near your door
                            Disaster Suplies Kit basics



                                                                                 Back to Top

                       How to Protect Your Property

                            Avoid building or living in buildings within several hundred feet of the coastline. These
                            areas are more likely to experience damage from tsunamis, strong winds, or coastal
                            storms.

                            Make a list of items to bring inside in the event of a tsunami. A list will help you
                            remember anything that can be swept away by tsunami waters.

                            Elevate coastal homes. Most tsunami waves are less than 10 feet. Elevating your house
                            will help reduce damage to your property from most tsunamis.

                            Follow flood preparedness precautions. Tsunamis are large amounts of water that crash
                            onto the coastline, creating floods.

                            Have an engineer check your home and advise about ways to make it more resistant
                            to tsunami water. There may be ways to divert waves away from your property. Improperly
                            built walls could make your situation worse. Consult with a professional for advice.


                                                                                 Back to Top

                       Media and Community Education Ideas

                            If your community is at risk, build and publicize locations of tsunami evacuation routes.
                            Post signs directing people to higher ground away from the coast.

                            Review land use in tsunami hazard areas so no critical facilities, such as hospitals and
                            police stations; or high occupancy buildings, such as auditoriums or schools; or
                            petroleum-storage tank farms are located where there is a tsunami hazard. Tsunami
                            damage can be minimized through land use planning, preparation, and evacuation.

                            Publish a special section in your local newspaper with emergency information on
                            tsunamis. Localize the information by printing the phone numbers of local emergency
                            services offices, the American Red Cross chapter, and hospitals.

                            Periodically inform your community of local public warning systems.

                            Work with local emergency services and American Red Cross officials to prepare special
                            reports for people with mobility impairments on what to do if an evacuation is ordered, and
                            develop plans to assist them with evacuation if necessary.

                            Interview local officials and insurance companies about the proper types of insurance to
                            cover a flood-related loss. Include information on the economic effects of disaster.


                                                                                 Back to Top

                       What to Do if You Feel a Strong Coastal Earthquake

                       If you feel an earthquake that lasts 20 seconds or longer when you are on the coast:

                            Drop, cover, and hold on. You should first protect yourself from the earthquake.

                            When the shaking stops, gather your family members and evacuate quickly. Leave
                            everything else behind. A tsunami may be coming within minutes. Move quickly to higher
                            ground away from the coast.

                            Be careful to avoid downed power lines and stay away from buildings and bridges from
                            which heavy objects might fall during an aftershock.


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                       What to Do When a Tsunami WATCH Is Issued

                            Listen to a NOAA Weather Radio, Coast Guard emergency frequency station, or other
                            reliable source for updated emergency information. As the energy of a tsunami is
                            transferred through open water, it is not detectable. Seismic action may be the only
                            advance warning before the tsunami approaches the coastline.

                            Check your Disaster Supplies Kit. Some supplies may need to be replaced or restocked.

                            Locate family members and review evacuation plans. Make sure everyone knows there
                            is a potential threat and the best way to safer ground.

                            If you have special evacuation needs (small children, elderly people, or persons with
                            disabilities), consider early evacuation. Evacuation may take longer, allow extra time.

                            If time permits, secure unanchored objects around your home or business. Tsunami
                            waves can sweep away loose objects. Securing these items or moving them inside will
                            reduce potential loss or damage.

                            Be ready to evacuate. Being prepared will help you to move more quickly if a tsunami
                            warning is issued.


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                       What to Do When a Tsunami WARNING Is Issued

                            Listen to a NOAA Weather Radio, Coast Guard emergency frequency station, or other
                            reliable source for updated emergency information. Authorities will issue a warning only
                            if they believe there is a real threat from tsunami.

                            Follow instructions issued by local authorities. Recommended evacuation routes may
                            be different from the one you use, or you may be advised to climb higher.

                            If you are in a tsunami risk area, do the following:

                                 If you hear an official tsunami warning or detect signs of a tsunami, evacuate at
                                 once. A tsunami warning is issued when authorities are certain that a tsunami
                                 threat exists, and there may be little time to get out.

                                 Take your Disaster Supplies Kit. Having supplies will make you more comfortable
                                 during the evacuation.

                                 Get to higher ground as far inland as possible. Officials cannot reliably predict
                                 either the height or local effects of tsunamis. Watching a tsunami from the beach
                                 or cliffs could put you in grave danger. If you can see the wave, you are too close to
                                 escape it.

                       Return home only after local officials tell you it is safe. A tsunami is a series of waves that may
                       continue for hours. Do not assume that after one wave the danger is over. The next wave may be
                       larger than the first one.


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                       What to Do After a Tsunami

                            Continue listening to a NOAA Weather Radio, Coast Guard emergency frequency
                            station, or other reliable source for emergency information. The tsunami may have
                            damaged roads, bridges, or other places that may be unsafe.

                            Help injured or trapped persons. Give first aid where appropriate. Call for help. Do not
                            move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury.

                            Help a neighbor who may require special assistance--infants, elderly people, and
                            people with disabilities. Elderly people and people with disabilities may require
                            additional assistance. People who care for them or who have large families may need
                            additional assistance in emergency situations.

                            Use the telephone only for emergency calls. Telephone lines are frequently
                            overwhelmed in disaster situations. They need to be clear for emergency calls to get
                            through.

                            Stay out of the building if waters remain around it. Tsunami waters, like flood waters,
                            can undermine foundations, causing buildings to sink, floors to crack, or walls to
                            collapse.

                            When re-entering buildings or homes, use extreme caution. Tsunami-driven flood
                            waters may have damaged buildings where you least expect it. Carefully watch every step
                            you take.

                                 Wear sturdy shoes. The most common injury following a disaster is cut feet.

                                 Use battery-powered lanterns or flashlights when examining buildings.
                                 Battery-powered lighting is the safest and easiest, preventing fire hazard for the
                                 user, occupants, and building.

                                 Examine walls, floors, doors, staircases, and windows to make sure that the
                                 building is not in danger of collapsing.

                                 Inspect foundations for cracks or other damage. Cracks and damage to a
                                 foundation can render a building uninhabitable.

                                 Look for fire hazards. There may be broken or leaking gas lines, flooded electrical
                                 circuits, or submerged furnaces or electrical appliances. Flammable or explosive
                                 materials may come from upstream. Fire is the most frequent hazard following
                                 floods.

                                 Check for gas leaks. If you smell gas or hear a blowing or hissing noise, open a
                                 window and quickly leave the building. Turn off the gas using the outside main
                                 valve if you can, and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. If you turn off
                                 the gas for any reason, it must be turned back on by a professional.

                                 Look for electrical system damage. If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires,
                                 or if you smell burning insulation, turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or
                                 circuit breaker. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker,
                                 call an electrician first for advice. Electrical equipment should be checked and
                                 dried before being returned to service.

                                 Check for sewage and water line damage. If you suspect sewage lines are
                                 damaged, avoid using the toilets and call a plumber. If water pipes are damaged,
                                 contact the water company and avoid using water from the tap. You can obtain safe
                                 water from undamaged water heaters or by melting ice cubes.

                                 Use tap water if local health officials advise it is safe.

                                 Watch out for animals, especially poisonous snakes, that may have come into
                                 buildings with the water. Use a stick to poke through debris. Tsunami flood
                                 waters flush snakes and animals out of their homes.

                                 Watch for loose plaster, drywall, and ceilings that could fall.

                                 Take pictures of the damage, both of the building and its contents, for
                                 insurance claims.

                            Open the windows and doors to help dry the building.

                            Shovel mud while it is still moist to give walls and floors an opportunity to dry.

                            Check food supplies. Any food that has come in contact with flood waters may be
                            contaminated and should be thrown out.


                                                                                 Back to Top

                       Produced by the National Disaster Education Coalition: American Red Cross, FEMA, IAEM, IBHS,
                       NFPA, NWS, USDA/CSREES, and USGS

                       This information is in the public domain and is intended to be used and shared without copyright
                       restrictions. If you wish to cite the source when you use this material, the following is suggested:
                       From: Talking About Disaster: Guide for Standard Messages. Produced by the National Disaster
                       Education Coalition, Washington, D.C., 1999.


        © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY




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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Disaster Safety > Volcano
                        Volcano
                        (PDF File)

                        Explosive volcanoes blast hot solid and molten rock fragments and
                        gases into the air. As a result, ashflows can occur on all sides of a
                        volcano and ash can fall hundreds of miles downwind. Dangerous
                        mudflows and floods can occur in valleys leading away from
                        volcanoes. If you live near a known volcano, active or dormant, be
                        prepared to follow instructions from your local emergency officials.

                        Before:
                        Learn about your community warning systems and emergency plans.

                        Be prepared for the hazards that can accompany volcanoes:

                             Mudflows and flash floods
                             Landslides and rockfalls
                             Earthquakes
                             Ashfall and acid rain
                             Tsunamis

                        Make evacuation plans. If you live in a known volcanic hazard area, plan a route out and have a
                        backup route in mind.

                        Develop an emergency communication plan. In case family members are separated from one
                        another during a volcanic eruption (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and
                        children are at school), have a plan for getting back together. Ask an out-of-state relative or
                        friend to serve as the “family contact,” because after a disaster, it’s often easier to call long
                        distance. Make sure everyone knows the name, address, and phone number of the contact
                        person.

                        Have disaster supplies on hand:

                             Flashlight and extra batteries
                             First aid kit and manual
                             Emergency food and water
                             Non-electric can opener
                             Essential medicines
                             Dust mask
                             Sturdy shoes

                        Get a pair of goggles and a throw-away breathing mask for
                        each member of the household in case of ashfall.

                        Contact your local emergency management office
                        or American Red Cross chapter for more
                        information on volcanoes.

                        During:
                        Follow the evacuation order issued by authorities.

                        Avoid areas downwind and river valleys
                        downstream of the volcano.

                        If caught indoors:

                             Close all windows, doors, and dampers.
                             Put all machinery inside a garage or barn.
                             Bring animals and livestock into closed shelters.

                        If trapped outdoors:

                             Seek shelter indoors.
                             If caught in a rockfall, roll into a ball to protect your head.
                             If caught near a stream, be aware of mudflows. Move up slope, especially if you hear the
                             roar of a mudflow.

                        Protect yourself during ashfall:

                             Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
                             Use goggles to protect your eyes.
                             Use a dust mask or hold a damp cloth over your face to help breathing.
                             Keep car or truck engines off.

                        Stay out of the area defined as a restricted zone by
                        government officials. Effects of a volcanic eruption can be
                        experienced many miles from a volcano. Mudflows and
                        flash flooding, wildland fires, and even deadly hot ashflow
                        can reach you even if you cannot see the volcano during an
                        eruption. Avoid river valleys and low lying areas. Trying to
                        watch an erupting volcano up close is a deadly idea.

                        Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for
                        the latest emergency information.

                        After: If possible, stay away from volcanic ashfall
                        areas.

                        When outside:

                             Cover your mouth and nose. Volcanic ash
                             can irritate your respiratory system.
                             Wear goggles to protect your eyes.
                             Keep skin covered to avoid irritation from
                             contact with ash.

                        Clear roofs of ashfall. Ashfall is very heavy and can
                        cause buildings to collapse. Exercise great caution
                        when working on a roof.

                        Avoid driving in heavy ashfall. Driving will stir up more ash that can clog engines and stall
                        vehicles.

                        If you have a respiratory ailment, avoid contact with any amount of ash. Stay indoors until local
                        health officials advise it is safe to go outside.

                        Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance - infants, elderly
                        people, and people with disabilities.


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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Disaster Safety > Wildfire
                        Wildfire

                        (PDF File)

                        More and more people are making their homes in woodland
                        settings in or near forests, rural areas, or remote mountain sites.
                        There, homeowners enjoy the beauty of the environment but face the
                        very real danger of wildfire.

                        Wildfires often begin unnoticed. They spread quickly, igniting brush, trees, and homes. Reduce
                        your risk by preparing now before wildfire strikes. Meet with your family to decide what to do and
                        where to go if wildfires threaten your area. Follow the steps listed below to protect your family,
                        home, and property.

                        Practice Wildfire Safety

                             People start most wildfires . . . find out how you can promote and practice wildfire safety.
                             Contact your local fire department, health department, or forestry office for information on
                             fire laws. Make sure that fire vehicles can get to your home. Clearly mark all driveway
                             entrances and display your name and address.
                             Report hazardous conditions that could cause a wildfire.
                             Teach children about fire safety. Keep matches out of their reach.
                             Post fire emergency telephone numbers.
                             Plan several escape routes away from your home by car and by foot.
                             Talk to your neighbors about wildfire safety. Plan how the neighborhood could work
                             together after a wildfire. Make a list of your neighbors' skills, such as medical or
                             technical. Consider how you could help neighbors who have special needs, such as
                             elderly or disabled persons. Make plans to take care of children who may be on their
                             own if parents can't get home.

                        Protect Your Home

                             Regularly clean roof and gutters.
                             Inspect chimneys at least twice a year. Clean them at least once a year. Keep the
                             dampers in good working order. Equip chimneys and stovepipes with a spark arrester
                             that meets the requirements of National Fire Protection Association Code 211. (Contact
                             your local fire department for exact specifications.)
                             Use 1/2-inch mesh screen beneath porches, decks, floor areas, and the home itself.
                             Also, screen openings to floors, roof, and attic.
                             Install a smoke detector on each level of your home, especially near bedrooms; test
                             monthly and change the batteries at least once each year.
                             Teach each family member how to use the fire extinguisher (ABC type) and show them
                             where it's kept.
                             Keep a ladder that will reach the roof.
                             Consider installing protective shutters or heavy fire-resistant drapes.
                             Keep handy household items that can be used as fire tools: a rake, axe, handsaw or
                             chainsaw, bucket, and shovel.

                        Before Wildfire Threatens

                             Design and landscape your home with wildfire safety in mind.
                             Select materials and plants that can help contain fire rather than fuel it.
                             Use fire resistant or non-combustible materials on the roof and exterior structure of the
                             dwelling. Or treat wood or combustible material used in roofs, siding, decking, or trim
                             with UL-approved fire-retardant chemicals.
                             Plant fire-resistant shrubs and trees. For example, hardwood trees are less flammable
                             than pine, evergreen, eucalyptus or fir trees.

                        Create a 30- to 1OO-Foot Safety Zone Around Your Home.

                             Within this area, you can take steps to reduce potential exposure to flames and radiant
                             heat. Homes built in pine forests should have a minimum safety zone of 100 feet. If your
                             home sits on a steep slope, standard protective measures may not suffice. Contact your
                             local fire department or forestry of fice for additional information.
                             Rake leaves, dead limbs, and twigs. Clear all flammable vegetation.
                             Remove leaves and rubbish from under structures and dispose of them properly.
                             Thin a 15-foot space between tree crowns, and remove limbs within 15 feet of the
                             ground.
                             Remove dead branches that extend over the roof.
                             Prune tree branches and shrubs within 15 feet of a stovepipe or chimney outlet.
                             Ask the power company to clear branches from powerlines.
                             Remove vines from the walls of the home.
                             Mow grass regularly.
                             Clear a 10-foot area around propane tanks and the barbecue. Place a screen over the
                             grill--use non-flammable material with mesh no coarser than one-quarter inch.
                             Regularly dispose of newspapers and rubbish at an approved site. Follow local burning
                             regulations.
                             Place stove, fireplace, and grill ashes in a metal bucket, soak in water for two days, then
                             bury the cold ashes in mineral soil.
                             Store gasoline, oily rags, and other flammable materials in approved safety cans. Place
                             cans in a safe location away from the base of buildings.
                             Stack firewood at least 100 feet away and uphill from your home. Clear combustible
                             material within 20 feet. Use only UL-approved woodburning devices.

                        Plan Your Water Needs

                             Identify and maintain an adequate outside water source such as a small pond, cistern,
                             well, swimming pool, or hydrant.
                             Have a garden hose that is long enough to reach any area of the home and other
                             structures on the property.
                             Install freeze-proof exterior water outlets on at least two sides of the home and near
                             other structures on the property. Install additional outlets at least 50 feet from the home.
                             Consider obtaining a portable gasoline-powered pump in case electrical power is cut
                             off.

                        When Wildfire Threatens

                             If you are warned that a wildfire is threatening your area, listen to your battery-operated
                             radio for reports and evacuation information. Follow the instructions of local officials.
                             Back your car into the garage or park it in an open space facing the direction of escape.
                             Shut doors and roll up windows. Leave the key in the ignition. Close garage windows
                             and doors, but leave them unlocked. Disconnect automatic garage door openers.
                             Confine pets to one room. Make plans to care for your pets in case you must evacuate.
                             Arrange temporary housing at a friend or relative's home outside the threatened area.

                        If Advised to Evacuate, Do So Immediately

                             Wear protective clothing--sturdy shoes, cotton or woolen clothing, long pants, a
                             long-sleeved shirt, gloves, and a handkerchief to protect your face.
                             Take your Disaster Supplies Kit.
                             Lock your home.
                             Tell someone when you left and where you are going.
                             Choose a route away from fire hazards. Watch for changes in the speed and direction of
                             fire and smoke.

                        If You're sure You Have Time, Take Steps to Protect Your Home

                        Inside:

                             Close windows, vents, doors, venetian blinds or non-combustible window coverings,
                             and heavy drapes. Remove lightweight curtains.
                             Shut off gas at the meter. Turn off pilot lights.
                             Open fireplace damper. Close fireplace screens.
                             Move flammable furniture into the center of the home away from windows and
                             sliding-glass doors.
                             Turn on a light in each room to increase the visibility of your home in heavy smoke.

                        Outside:

                             Seal attic and ground vents with pre-cut plywood or commercial seals.
                             Turn off propane tanks.
                             Place combustible patio furniture inside.
                             Connect the garden hose to outside taps.
                             Set up the portable gasoline-powered pump.
                             Place lawn sprinklers on the roof and near above-ground fuel tanks. Wet the roof.
                             Wet or remove shrubs within 15 feet of the home.
                             Gather fire tools.

                        Emergency Supplies

                        When wildfire threatens, you won't have time to shop or search for supplies. Assemble a
                        Disaster Supplies Kit with items you may need if advised to evacuate. Store these supplies in
                        sturdy, easy-to-carry containers such as backpacks, dufflebags, or trash containers.

                        Include:

                             A three-day supply of water (one gallon per person per day) and food that won't spoil.
                             One change of clothing and footwear per person and one blanket or sleeping bag per
                             person.
                             A first aid kit that includes your family's prescription medications.
                             Emergency tools including a battery-powered radio, flashlight, and plenty of extra
                             batteries.
                             An extra set of car keys and a credit card, cash, or traveler's checks.
                             Sanitation supplies.
                             Special items for infant, elderly or disabled family members.
                             An extra pair of eyeglasses.
                             Keep important family documents in a waterproof container. Assemble a smaller
                             version of your kit to keep in the trunk of your car.

                        Create a Family Disaster Plan

                        Wildfire and other types of disasters--hurricane, flood, tornado, ealthquake, hazardous
                        matenals spill, winter storm--can strike quickly and without warning. You can cope with disaster
                        by preparing in advance and working together. Meet with your family to create a disaster plan.
                        To get started. . .

                        Contact your local Red Cross chapter

                             Find out about the hazards in your community.
                             Ask how you would be warned.
                             Find out how to prepare for each type of disaster.

                        Meet With Your Family

                             Discuss the types of disasters that could occur.
                             Explain how to prepare and respond to each type of disaster.
                             Discuss where to go and what to bring if advised to evacuate.
                             Practice what you have discussed.

                        Plan How Your Family Will Stay in Contact if Separated by Disaster

                             Pick two meeting places:
                                1.A place a safe distance from your home in case of a home fire.
                                2.A place outside your neighborhood in case you can't return home.
                             Choose an out-of-state friend as a "check-in contact" for everyone to call.

                        Complete These Steps

                             Post emergency telephone numbers by every phone.
                             Show responsible family members how and when to shut off water, gas, and electricity
                             at main switches.
                             Contact your local fire department to learn about home fire hazards.
                             Learn first aid and CPR. Contact your local American Red Cross chapter for information
                             and training.

                        Your Local Red Cross Chapter Can Provide Additional Materials in English and Spanish:

                             "Are You Ready for a Fire?" (ARC 4456)
                             "Fire Safety Pictorial Brochure" (ARC 5036) designed for people of low literacy. Contains
                             few words, and those are in both English and Spanish.
                             "Safe Living in Your Manufactured Home" (ARC 4465) gives fire, flood, and tornado
                             safety information for people who live in manufactured (mobile) homes.
                             "Your Family Disaster Plan" (ARC 4466)
                             "Your Family Disaster Supplies Kit" (ARC 4463)

                        Materials for Children:

                             Fire Prevention Week Campaign Kit (ARC 5016)
                             Contains ideas, stories, sample news releases, camera-ready artwork, and information
                             for use during Fire Prevention Week, and, since most of the information in the kit is
                             undated, throughout the year.
                             "Be Ready 1-2-3" features a children's workbook (ARC 5017), Instructor's Manual (ARC
                             5018), "How-To" Guide (ARC 5019), and "completion certificate" (C-814) that involve
                             puppets who give important safety information to children ages 3-8 about residential fire
                             safety, winter storms, and earthquakes.
                             "Fire Safety Activity Poster" (ARC 5034) is an 18" x 24" poster designed for children ages
                             4-8 on one side, and 8-12 on the other. Contains a maze, puzzle, word find, and coloring
                             pages. In English and Spanish.
                             "Disaster Preparedness Coloring Book" (PDF File) (ARC 2200, English, or ARC 2200S,
                             Spanish) for children ages 3-10.
                             "Adventures of the Disaster Dudes" (ARC 5024) video and Presenter's Guide for use by
                             an adult with children in grades 4-6.


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY




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                       Home > Services > Disaster Services > Disaster Safety > Winter Storm
                        Winter Storm     Versión en Español

                        (PDF File)

                        Table of Contents

                        Prepare a Winter Storm Plan
                        Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit
                        Stay tuned for Storm Warnings
                        Know what Winter Storm Watches and Warnings mean
                        When a Winter Storm Watch is issued
                        When a Winter Storm Warning is issued
                        If you DO get stuck
                        More Information

                        See also...

                        Winter Storms... the Deceptive Killers, in-depth information about winter storm safety from the
                        National Weather Service

                        Prepare a Winter Storm Plan

                             Have extra blankets on hand.
                             Ensure that each member of your household has a warm coat, gloves or mittens, hat,
                             and water-resistant boots.

                        Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit Containing--

                             First aid kit and essential medications.
                             Battery-powered NOAA Weather radio, flashlight, and extra batteries.
                             Canned food and can opener.
                             Bottled water (at least one gallon of water per person per day to last at least 3 days).
                             Extra warm clothing, including boots, mittens, and a hat.
                             Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit for your car, too.
                             Have your car winterized before winter storm season.

                        Stay Tuned for Storm Warnings. . .

                             Listen to NOAA Weather Radio and your local radio and TV stations for updated storm
                             information.

                        Know What Winter Storm WATCHES and WARNINGS Mean

                             A winter storm WATCH means a winter storm is possible in your area.
                             A winter storm WARNING means a winter storm is headed for your area.
                             A blizzard WARNING means strong winds, blinding wind-driven snow, and dangerous
                             wind chill are expected. Seek shelter immediately!

                        When a Winter Storm WATCH is Issued...

                             Listen to NOAA Weather Radio, local radio, and TV stations, or cable TV such as The
                             Weather Channel for further updates.
                             Be alert to changing weather conditions.
                             Avoid unnecessary travel.

                        When a Winter Storm WARNING is Issued...

                             Stay indoors during the storm.
                             If you must go outside, several layers of lightweight clothing will keep you warmer than a
                             single heavy coat. Gloves (or mittens) and a hat will prevent loss of body heat. Cover
                             your mouth to protect your lungs.
                             Understand the hazards of wind chill, which combines the cooling effect of wind and
                             cold temperatures on exposed skin.
                             As the wind increases, heat is carried away from a person's body at an accelerated
                             rated, driving down the body temperature.
                             Walk carefully on snowy, icy, sidewalks.
                             After the storm, if you shovel snow, be extremely careful. It is physically strenuous work,
                             so take frequent breaks. Avoid overexertion.
                             Avoid traveling by car in a storm, but if you must...
                                  Carry a Disaster Supplies Kit in the trunk.
                                  Keep your car's gas tank full for emergency use and to keep the fuel line from
                                  freezing.
                                  Let someone know your destination, your route, and when you expect to arrive. If
                                  your car gets stuck along the way, help can be sent along your predetermined
                                  route.

                        If You Do Get Stuck...

                             Stay with your car. Do not try to walk to safety.
                             Tie a brightly colored cloth (preferably red) to the antenna for rescuers to see.
                             Start the car and use the heater for about 10 minutes every hour. Keep the exhaust pipe
                             clear so fumes won't back up in the car.
                             Leave the overhead light on when the engine is running so that you can be seen.
                             As you sit, keep moving your arms and legs to keep blood circulating and to stay warm.
                             Keep one window away from the blowing wind slightly open to let in air.

                        Your Local Red Cross Chapter Can Provide Additional Materials in English and Spanish:

                             "Safe Steps for Winter Weather" (ARC 5056)
                             "Surviving the Cold" 16-minute video (Available for a nominal fee) (321709)
                             "Your Family Disaster Plan"
                             "Your Family Disaster Supplies Kit" (ARC 4463)

                        Materials for Children:

                             "Be Ready 1-2-3" involve puppets who give important safety information to children ages
                             3-8 about residential fire safety, winter storms, and earthquakes.
                             "Disaster Preparedness Coloring Book" (PDF File) (ARC 2200, English, or Spanish) for
                             use by children 3-10.
                             "Adventures of the Disaster Dudes" (ARC 5024) video and Presenter's Guide for use by
                             an adult with children in grades 4-6.


         © Copyright 2001 The American National Red Cross. All Rights Reserved.        CONTACT US  |  SITE DIRECTORY  |  PRIVACY POLICY



Red Cross family preparedness document/checklists:
Where will your family be when disaster strikes? They could be anywhere-
at work at school or in the car.  How will you find each other? Will you
know if your children are safe?  Disaster can strike quickly and without warning. It can force
you to evacuate your neighborhood or confine you to your home. What would you do if basic services-water, gas, electricity or telephones-were cut off? Local officials and relief workers will be on the scene after a disaster, but they cannot reach everyone right away.  Families can-and do-cope with disaster by preparing in advance and working together as a team. Follow the steps
listed in this brochure to create your family’s disaster plan.  Knowing what to do is your best protection and your responsibility.

outside your neighborhood
4 Steps to Safety
Fill out, copy and distribute to all family members Locate the main electric fuse box, water service main and natural gas main. Learn how and when to turn these utilities off. Teach all responsible
family members. Keep necessary tools near gas and water shut-off valves.
Remember, turn off the utilities only if you suspect the lines are damaged or if
you are instructed to do so. If you turn the gas off, you will need a professional
to turn it back on.
UTILITIESEMERGENCY SUPPLIES
Keep enough supplies in your home
to meet your needs for at least three
days. Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit
with items you may need in an evacua-tion.
Store these supplies in sturdy,
easy-to-carry containers such as back-packs,
duffle bags or covered trash
containers.
Include:
n A three-day supply of water (one
gallon per person per day) and
food that won’t spoil.
n One change of clothing and foot-wear
per person, and one blanket
or sleeping bag per person.
n A first aid kit that includes your
family’s prescription medications.
n Emergency tools including a bat-tery-
powered radio, flashlight and
plenty of extra batteries.
n An extra set of car keys and a credit
card, cash or traveler’s checks.
n Sanitation supplies.
n Special items for infant, elderly or
disabled family members.
n An extra pair of glasses.
Keep important family documents in a
waterproof container. Keep a smaller
kit in the trunk of your car.
2
Create a Disaster Plan
Meet with your family and discuss why you need to prepare for disaster. Explain the
dangers of fire, severe weather and earthquakes to children. Plan to share responsibili-ties
and work together as a team.
o Discuss the types of disasters that are
most likely to happen. Explain what
to do in each case.
o Pick two places to meet:
1. Right outside your home in case of
a sudden emergency, like a fire.
2. Outside your neighborhood in
case you can’t return home.
Everyone must know the address and
phone number.
o Ask an out-of-state friend to be your
“family contact.” After a disaster, it’s
often easier to call long distance.
Other family members should
call this person and tell them where
they are. Everyone must know your
contact’s phone number.
o Discuss what to do in an evacuation.
Plan how to take care of your pets.
Find Out What Could Happen to You
Contact your local emergency management or civil defense office and American Red
Cross chapter - be prepared to take notes:
o Ask what types of disasters are most
likely to happen. Request infor-mation
on how to prepare for each.
o Learn about your community’s
warning signals: what they sound
like and what you should do when
you hear them.
o Ask about animal care after disaster.
Animals may not be allowed inside
emergency shelters due to health
regulations.
o Find out how to help elderly or
disabled persons, if needed.
o Next, find out about the disaster
plans at your workplace, your
children’s school or daycare center
and other places where your family
spends time.
4 1
Family Disaster Plan
outside your home
Emergency Meeting Place
Meeting Place Phone
Address

3
HOME HAZARD HUNT
During a disaster, ordinary objects
in your home can cause injury or
damage. Anything that can move,
fall, break or cause a fire is a home
hazard. For example, a hot water
heater or a bookshelf can fall.
Inspect your home at least once a
year and fix potential hazards.
Contact your local fire department
to learn about home fire hazards.
o Test your smoke detectors monthly
and change the batteries at least once
a year.
Jan. o July o
Feb. o Aug. o
Mar. o Sep. o
Apr. o Oct. o
May o Nov. o
June o Dec. o
Change batteries in each year.
(month)
Working with neighbors can save lives and property. Meet with your
neighbors to plan how the neighborhood could work together after a disas-ter
until help arrives. If you’re a member of a neighborhood organization,
such as a home association or crime watch group, introduce disaster pre-paredness
as a new activity. Know your neighbors’ special skills (e.g.,
medical, technical) and consider how you could help neighbors who have
special needs, such as disabled and elderly persons. Make plans for child
care in case parents can’t get home.
NEIGHBORS HELPING NEIGHBORS
o Quiz your kids every six months so
they remember what to do.
o Conduct fire and emergency
evacuation drills.
Year Drill Date
o Replace stored water every three
months and stored food every six
months.
o Test and recharge your fire
extinguisher(s) according to
manufacturer’s instructions.
4
Practice and Maintain Your Plan
Evacuate immediately if told
to do so:
n Listen to your battery-powered
radio and follow the instructions
of local emergency officials.
n Wear protective clothing and
sturdy shoes.
n Take your Disaster Supplies Kit.
n Lock your home.
n Use travel routes specified by
local authorities - don’t use
shortcuts because certain areas
may be impassable or dangerous.
If you’re sure you have time:
n Shut off water, gas and electricity
before leaving, if instructed to do so.
n Post a note telling others when you
left and where you are going.
n Make arrangements for your pets.
EVACUATION
o Post emergency telephone numbers
by phones (fire, police, ambulance,
etc.).
o Teach children how and when to call
911 or your local Emergency Medical
Services number for emergency help.
o Show each family member how and
when to turn off the water, gas and
electricity at the main switches.
o Check if you have adequate insurance
coverage.
o Teach each family member how to
use the fire extinguisher (ABC type),
and show them where it’s kept.
Complete This Checklist
o Install smoke detectors on each level
of your home, especially near
bedrooms.
o Conduct a home hazard hunt.
o Stock emergency supplies and
assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit.
o Take a Red Cross first aid and CPR
class.
o Determine the best escape routes
from your home. Find two ways out
of each room.
o Find the safe spots in your home for
each type of disaster.

If disaster strikes
Remain calm and patient. Put your
plan into action.
Check for injuries
Give first aid and get help for seri-ously
injured people.
Listen to your battery
powered radio for
news and instructions
Evacuate, if advised to do so. Wear
protective clothing and sturdy shoes.
bleaches, gasoline and other
flammable liquids immediately.
Check for damage in
your home. . .
n Use flashlights - do not light
matches or turn on electrical
switches, if you suspect damage.
n Check for fires, fire hazards and
other household hazards.
n Sniff for gas leaks, starting at the
water heater. If you smell gas or
suspect a leak, turn off the main
gas valve, open windows, and
get everyone outside quickly.
n Shut off any other damaged
utilities.
n Clean up spilled medicines,
The Federal Emergency Management Agency’s Community and Family Preparedness Program and the American Red
Cross Community Disaster Education Program are nationwide efforts to help people prepare for disasters of all types.
For more information, please contact your local emergency management office and American Red Cross chapter. This
brochure and other preparedness materials are available by calling FEMA at 1-800-480-2520, or writing: FEMA, P.O.
Box 2012, Jessup, MD 20794-2012.
Publications are also available on the World Wide Web at:
FEMA’s Web site: http://www.fema.gov
American Red Cross Web site: http://www.redcross.org
Local sponsorship provided by:
Remember to. . .
n Confine or secure your pets.
n Call your family contact-
do not use the telephone again
unless it is a life-threatening
emergency.
n Check on your neighbors, espe-cially
elderly or disabled persons.
n Make sure you have an adequate
water supply in case service is
cut off.
n Stay away from downed power
lines.
September 1991
FEMA L-191
ARC 4466
Ask for: Are You Ready?, Your Family
Disaster Supplies Kit and Food & Water
in an Emergency.



end of red cross info



































































U. S. Constitution (Complete copy)


Keywords:  U.S. Constitution, the Constitution


Constitution of the United States

                           
     Preamble

     We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union,
     establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense,
     promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves
     and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of
     America.

     Article I

     Section 1.

     All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United
     States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

     Section 2.

        1.The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every
          second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors, in each State
          shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of
          the State Legislature.
        2.No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of
          twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who
          shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be
          chosen.
        3.Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States
          which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers,
          which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons,
          including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not
          taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made
          within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and
          within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law
          direct. The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty
          Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such
          enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to
          choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one,
          Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware
          one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and
          Georgia three.
        4.When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive
          Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.
        5.The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other Officers; and
          shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

     Section 3.

        1.The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each
          State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall
          have one Vote.
        2.Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election,
          they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the
          Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of
          the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the
          Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year;
          and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the
          Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary
          Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such
          Vacancies.
        3.No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty
          Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not,
          when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
        4.The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall
          have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.
        5.The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in
          the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of
          President of the United States.
        6.The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for
          that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the
          United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be
          convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.
        7.Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from
          Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust, or Profit
          under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and
          subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment, and Punishment according to Law.

     Section 4.

        1.The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and
          Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but
          the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as
          to the Places of choosing Senators.
        2.The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall
          be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different
          Day.

     Section 5.

        1.Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns, and Qualifications of its
          own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business;
          but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to
          compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such
          Penalties as each House may provide.
        2.Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for
          disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.
        3.Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish
          the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgement require Secrecy; and
          the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the
          Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal.
        4.Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the
          other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which
          the two Houses shall be sitting.

     Section 6.

        1.The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their
          Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United
          States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace,
          be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their
          respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any
          Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other
          Place.
        2.No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be
          appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall
          have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during
          such time and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a
          Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

     Section 7.

        1.All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but
          the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.
        2.Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate,
          shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States;
          If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to the
          House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large
          on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two
          thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent together with the
          Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if
          approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But in all such Cases
          the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names
          of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of
          each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within
          ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same
          shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their
          Adjournment prevent its Return in which Case it shall not be a Law.
        3.Every Order, Resolution, or Vote, to Which the Concurrence of the Senate and
          House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of
          Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before
          the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by
          him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives,
          according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

     Section 8.

        1.The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and
          Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defense and general
          Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform
          throughout the United States;
        2.To borrow money on the credit of the United States;
        3.To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and
          with the Indian Tribes;
        4.To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject
          of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;
        5.To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the
          Standard of Weights and Measures;
        6.To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin of
          the United States;
        7.To Establish Post Offices and Post Roads;
        8.To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times
          to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and
          Discoveries;
        9.To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
       10.To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and
          Offenses against the Law of Nations;
       11.To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules
          concerning Captures on Land and Water;
       12.To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be
          for a longer Term than two Years;
       13.To provide and maintain a Navy;
       14.To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;
       15.To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress
          Insurrections and repel Invasions;
       16.To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing
          such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States,
          reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the
          Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by
          Congress.
       17.To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not
          exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the
          Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United
          States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of
          the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts,
          Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;-And
       18.To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into
          Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution
          in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

     Section 9.

        1.the Migration or Importation of Such Persons as any of the States now existing
          shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the
          Year on thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on
          such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.
        2.The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when
          in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.
        3.No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
        4.No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the
          Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
        5.No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.
        6.No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the
          Ports of one State over those of another; nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one
          State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.
        7.No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of
          Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the
          Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to
          time.
        8.No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding
          any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the
          Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind
          whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

     Section 10.

        1.No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of
          Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold
          and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post
          facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of
          Nobility.
        2.No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties on
          Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its
          inspection Laws: and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State
          on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States;
          and all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Control of the Congress.
        3.No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep
          Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact
          with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually
          invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

     Article II

     Section 1.

        1.The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of
          America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together
          with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected, as follows:
        2.Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a
          Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives
          to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator or
          Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United
          States, shall be appointed an Elector.
        3.The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two
          Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with
          themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the
          Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit
          sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the
          President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the
          Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes
          shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be
          the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors
          appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an
          equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately
          choose by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then
          from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner choose the
          President. But in choosing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States the
          Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall
          consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of
          all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of
          the President, the Person having the greater Number of Votes of the Electors shall
          be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal
          Votes the Senate shall choose from them by Ballot the Vice President.
        4.The Congress may determine the Time of choosing the Electors, and the Day on
          which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the
          United States.
        5.No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the
          time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of
          President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have
          attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within
          the United States.
        6.In case of the removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation or
          Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the Same shall
          devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the
          Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice
          President, declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer
          shall act accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be
          elected.
        7.The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation,
          which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the Period for which he
          shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other
          Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
        8.Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or
          Affirmation: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office
          of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve,
          protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

     Section 2.

        1.The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United
          States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual
          Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion, in writing, of the
          principal Officer in each of the Executive Departments, upon any Subject relating
          to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant
          Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of
          Impeachment.
        2.He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate to make
          Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall
          nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint
          Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court,
          and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein
          otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by Law; but the Congress
          may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in
          the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
        3.The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during
          the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End
          of their next Session.

     Section 3.

     He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the
     Union recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge
     necessary and expedient; he may on extraordinary Occasions, convene both
     Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with
     Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he
     shall think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other Public Ministers; he
     shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the
     Officers of the United States.

     Section 4.

     The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be
     removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or
     other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

     Article III

     Section 1.

     The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court,
     and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and
     establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their
     Offices during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their
     Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their
     Continuance in Office.

     Section 2.

        1.The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this
          Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be
          made, under their Authority;-to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public
          Ministers and Consuls;-to all Cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction;-to
          Controversies to which the United State shall be a Party;-to Controversies
          between two or more States;-between a State and Citizens of another
          State;-between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under the Grants of
          different States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States,
          Citizens or Subjects.
        2.In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those
          in which a State shall be a Party, the supreme Court shall have original
          Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall
          have appellate Jurisdiction, both as Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and
          under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.
        3.The trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and
          such Trial shall be held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been
          committed; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such
          Place or Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.

     Section 3.

        1.Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them,
          or, in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be
          convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt
          Act, or on Confession in open Court.
        2.The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no
          Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture during the Life
          of the Person attainted.

     Article IV

     Section 1.

     Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the Public Acts, Records, and
     Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws
     prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings shall be
     proved and the Effect thereof.

     Section 2.

        1.The Citizens of each State be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens
          in the several States.
        2.A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall
          flee from Justice and be found in another State, shall on demand of the executive
          Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the
          State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
        3.No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof,
          escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein,
          be discharged from such Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of
          the Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.

     Section 3.

        1.New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State
          shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any
          State be formed by the Junction two or more States, or Parts of States, without
          the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the
          Congress.
        2.The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and
          Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United
          States; and nothing in this Constitution shall construed as to Prejudice any Claims
          of the United States, or of any particular State.

     Section 4.

     The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form
     of government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on
     Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot
     be convened) against domestic Violence.

     Article V

     The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall
     propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the
     Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for
     proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and
     purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three
     fourths of the several states, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one
     or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that
     no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight
     hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the
     Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be
     deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

     Article VI
       1.All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this
          Constitution be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under
          the Confederation.
        2.This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in
          Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the
          Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the
          Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or
          Laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
        3.The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the
          several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both shall be
          bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious Test
          shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the
          United States.

     Article VII

     The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the
     Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same.
     ARTICLES IN ADDITION TO, AND AMENDMENT OF, THE CONSTITUTION OF THE
     UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, PROPOSED BY CONGRESS, AND RATIFIED BY THE
     LEGISLATURES OF THE SEVERAL STATES PURSUANT TO THE FIFTH ARTICLE OF
     ORIGINAL CONSTITUTION. [THE BILL OF RIGHTS" (AMENDMENTS I THROUGH X)]

     Amendment I [1791]

     Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
     prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of
     the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the
     Government for a redress of grievances.

     Amendment II [1791]

     A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right
     of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

     Amendment III [1791]

     No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent
     of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

     Amendment IV [1791]

     The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects,
     against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no
     Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation,
     and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to
     be seized.

     Amendment V [1791]

     No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime,
     unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in
     the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or
     public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice
     put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a
     witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due
     process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just
     compensation.

     Amendment VI [1791]

     In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and
     public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall
     have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by
     law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be
     confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for
     obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his
     defense.

     Amendment VII [1791]

     In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty
     dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried to jury, shall    be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the
     rules of the common law.

     Amendment VIII [1791]

     Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines posed, nor cruel and
     unusual punishments inflicted.

     Amendment IX [1791]

     The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights shall not be construed to
     deny or disparage others retained by the people.

     Amendment X [1791]

     The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor prohibited
     by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. [END
     BILL OF RIGHTS]

     Amendment XI [1798]

     The Judicial power of the United States shall not be the construed to extend to
     any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United
     States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or subjects of any Foreign
     State.

     Amendment XII [1804]

     The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President
     and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same
     state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as
     President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they
     shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons
     voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they
     shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the
     United States, directed to the President of the Senate;-The President of the
     Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open
     all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;-The person having the
     greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be
     a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such
     majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three
     on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall
     choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the
     votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one
     vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from
     two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a
     choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President
     whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them before the fourth day of
     March next following, then the Vice President shall act as President, as in the
     case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.-The person
     having the greatest number of votes as Vice- President, shall be the
     Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors
     appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers
     on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose
     shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the
     whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally
     ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of
     the United States.

     Amendment XIII [1865]

     Section 1.

     Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime
     whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United
     States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

     Section 2.

     Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

     Amendment XIV [1868]

     Section 1.

     All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction
     thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No
     State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or
     immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person
     of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person
     within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

     Section 2.

     Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their
     respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State
     excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the
     choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States,
     Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the
     members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of
     such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in
     any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis
     of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of
     such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one
     years of age in such State.

     Section 3.

     No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of
     President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military under the United
     States or under any State, who having previously taken an oath, as a member of
     Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State
     legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the
     Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in Insurrection or rebellion
     against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress
     may by a vote of two thirds of each House, remove such disability.

     Section 4.

     The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including
     debts Incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing
     insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States
     nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of
     insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or
     emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be
     held illegal and void.

     Section 5.

     The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the
     provisions of this article.

     Amendment XV [1870]

     Section 1.

     The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged
     by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous
     condition of servitude.

     Section 2.

     The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

     Amendment XVI [1913]

     The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from
     whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and
     without regard to any census or enumeration.

     Amendment XVII [1913]

        1.The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each
          State, elected by the people there of, for six years; and each Senator shall have
          one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for
          electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.
        2.When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the
          executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such
          vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the
          executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the
          vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.
        3.This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any
          Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

     Amendment XVIII [1919]

     Section 1.

     After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or
     transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the
     exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the
     jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

     Section 2.

     The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this
     article by appropriate legislation.

     Section 3.

     This article shall be in operative unless it shall have been ratified as an
     amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as
     provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission
     hereof to the States by the Congress.

     Amendment XIX [1920]

        1.The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged
          by the United States or by any State on account of sex.
        2.Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

     Amendment XX [1933]

     Section 1.

     The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day
     of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day
     of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had
     not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

     Section 2.

     The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall
     begin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a
     different day.

     Section 3.

     If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President
     elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If the
     President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of
     his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the
     Vice-President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified;
     and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President
     elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act
     as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and
     such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have
     qualified.

     Section 4.

     The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons
     from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the
     right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of
     any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever
     the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

     Section 5.

     Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the
     ratification of this article.

     Section 6.

     This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an
     amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several
     States within seven years from the date of its submission.

     Amendment XXI [1933]

     Section 1.

     The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is
     hereby repealed.

     Section 2.

     The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the
     United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the
     laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

     Section 3.

     This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an
     amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided    in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to
     the States by the Congress.

     Amendment XXII [1951]

     Section 1.

     No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no
     person who has held the office of President, or acted as President for more than
     two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be
     elected to the office of President more than once. But this Article shall not apply
     to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by
     the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of
     President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article
     becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President
     during the remainder of such term.

     Section 2.

     This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an
     amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three fourths of the several
     States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the
     Congress.

     Amendment XXIII [1961]

     Section 1.

     The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint
     in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President
     and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives
     in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no
     event more than the least populous state; they shall be in addition to those
     appointed by the states, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the
     election of President and Vice-President, to be electors ap pointed by a state; and
     they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth
     article of amendment.

     Section 2.

     The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

     Amendment XXIV [1964]

     Section 1.

     The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election
     for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for
     Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the
     United States, or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

     Section 2.

     The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

     Amendment XXV [1967]

     Section 1.

     In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation,
     the Vice President shall become President.

     Section 2.

     Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President
     shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a
     majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

     Section 3.

     Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and
     the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is
     unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to    them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be
     discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

     Section 4.

     Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the
     executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide,
     transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House
     of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to
     discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall
     immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
     Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the
     Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration
     that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless
     the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive
     department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit
     within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of
     the House of Representatives their written declaration and the President is unable
     to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide
     the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If
     the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written
     declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after
     Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses
     that the President is unable to discharge the power and duties of his office, the
     Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President;
     otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

     Amendment XXVI [1971]

     Section 1.

     The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older
     to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on
     account of age.

     Section 2.

     The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

     Amendment XXVII [1992]

     No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and
     Representatives, shall take effect, until an election of Representatives shall have
     intervened.



                             
End of U.S. Constitution.    Scroll down to view the next entry into the Laptop Friendly Disaster Survival Library.




















































































U. S. Army Survival Manual FM 21-76  (Complete copy.  From:  http://155.217.58.58/cgi-bin/atdl.dll/fm/21-76/toc.htm )





                                        CHAPTER 1


                                    INTRODUCTION



     This manual is based entirely on the keyword SURVIVAL. The letters in this word can help guide you in
     your actions in any survival situation. Whenever faced with a survival situation, remember the word
     SURVIVAL.

                                     SURVIVAL ACTIONS

The following paragraphs expand on the meaning of each letter of the word survival. Study and remember what each letter
signifies because you may some day have to make it work for you.

S -Size Up the Situation

If you are in a combat situation, find a place where you can conceal yourself from the enemy. Remember, security takes
priority. Use your senses of hearing, smell, and sight to get a feel for the battlefield. What is the enemy doing? Advancing?
Holding in place? Retreating? You will have to consider what is developing on the battlefield when you make your survival plan.

Size Up Your Surroundings

Determine the pattern of the area. Get a feel for what is going on around you. Every environment, whether forest, jungle, or
desert, has a rhythm or pattern. This rhythm or pattern includes animal and bird noises and movements and insect sounds. It
may also include enemy traffic and civilian movements.

Size Up Your Physical Condition

The pressure of the battle you were in or the trauma of being in a survival situation may have caused you to overlook wounds
you received. Check your wounds and give yourself first aid. Take care to prevent further bodily harm. For instance, in any
climate, drink plenty of water to prevent dehydration. If you are in a cold or wet climate, put on additional clothing to prevent
hypothermia.

Size Up Your Equipment

Perhaps in the heat of battle, you lost or damaged some of your equipment. Check to see what equipment you have and what
condition it is in.

Now that you have sized up your situation, surroundings, physical condition, and equipment, you are ready to make your
survival plan. In doing so, keep in mind your basic physical needs--water, food, and shelter.

U -Use All Your Senses, Undue Haste Makes Waste

You may make a wrong move when you react quickly without thinking or planning. That move may result in your capture or
death. Don't move just for the sake of taking action. Consider all aspects of your situation (size up your situation) before you
make a decision and a move. If you act in haste, you may forget or lose some of your equipment. In your haste you may also
become disoriented so that you don't know which way to go. Plan your moves. Be ready to move out quickly without
endangering yourself if the enemy is near you. Use all your senses to evaluate the situation. Note sounds and smells. Be
sensitive to temperature changes. Be observant.

R -Remember Where You Are

Spot your location on your map and relate it to the surrounding terrain. This is a basic principle that you must always follow. If
there are other persons with you, make sure they also know their location. Always know who in your group, vehicle, or aircraft
has a map and compass. If that person is killed, you will have to get the map and compass from him. Pay close attention to
where you are and to where you are going. Do not rely on others in the group to keep track of the route. Constantly orient
yourself. Always try to determine, as a minimum, how your location relates to--

     The location of enemy units and controlled areas.

     The location of friendly units and controlled areas.

     The location of local water sources (especially important in the desert).

     Areas that will provide good cover and concealment.

This information will allow you to make intelligent decisions when you are in a survival and evasion situation.

V -Vanquish Fear and Panic

The greatest enemies in a combat survival and evasion situation are fear and panic. If uncontrolled, they can destroy your ability
to make an intelligent decision. They may cause you to react to your feelings and imagination rather than to your situation. They
can drain your energy and thereby cause other negative emotions. Previous survival and evasion training and self-confidence
will enable you to vanquish fear and panic.

I -Improvise

In the United States, we have items available for all our needs. Many of these items are cheap to replace when damaged. Our
easy come, easy go, easy-to-replace culture makes it unnecessary for us to improvise. This inexperience in improvisation can
be an enemy in a survival situation. Learn to improvise. Take a tool designed for a specific purpose and see how many other
uses you can make of it.

Learn to use natural objects around you for different needs. An example is using a rock for a hammer. No matter how
complete a survival kit you have with you, it will run out or wear out after a while. Your imagination must take over when your
kit wears out.

V -Value Living

All of us were born kicking and fighting to live, but we have become used to the soft life. We have become creatures of
comfort. We dislike inconveniences and discomforts. What happens when we are faced with a survival situation with its
stresses, inconveniences, and discomforts? This is when the will to live- placing a high value on living-is vital. The experience
and knowledge you have gained through life and your Army training will have a bearing on your will to live. Stubbornness, a
refusal to give in to problems and obstacles that face you, will give you the mental and physical strength to endure.

A -Act Like the Natives

The natives and animals of a region have adapted to their environment. To get a feel of the area, watch how the people go
about their daily routine. When and what do they eat? When, where, and how do they get their food? When and where do they
go for water? What time do they usually go to bed and get up? These actions are important to you when you are trying to avoid
capture.

Animal life in the area can also give you clues on how to survive. Animals also require food, water, and shelter. By watching
them, you can find sources of water and food.

                                           WARNING

 Animals cannot serve as an absolute guide to what you can eat and drink. Many animals eat plants that are toxic
 to humans.


Keep in mind that the reaction of animals can reveal your presence to the enemy.

If in a friendly area, one way you can gain rapport with the natives is to show interest in their tools and how they get food and
water. By studying the people, you learn to respect them, you often make valuable friends, and, most important, you learn how
to adapt to their environment and increase your chances of survival.

L -Live by Your Wits, But for Now, Learn Basic Skills

Without training in basic skills for surviving and evading on the battlefield, your chances of living through a combat survival and
evasion situation are slight.

Learn these basic skills now--not when you are headed for or are in the battle. How you decide to equip yourself before
deployment will impact on whether or not you survive. You need to know about the environment to which you are going, and
you must practice basic skills geared to that environment. For instance, if you are going to a desert, you need to know how to
get water in the desert.

Practice basic survival skills during all training programs and exercises. Survival training reduces fear of the unknown and gives
you self-confidence. It teaches you to live by your wits.



                                  PATTERN FOR SURVIVAL

Develop a survival pattern that lets you beat the enemies of survival. This survival pattern must include food, water, shelter, fire,
first aid, and signals placed in order of importance. For example, in a cold environment, you would need a fire to get warm; a
shelter to protect you from the cold, wind, and rain or snow; traps or snares to get food; a means to signal friendly aircraft;
and first aid to maintain health. If injured, first aid has top priority no matter what climate you are in.

Change your survival pattern to meet your immediate physical needs as the environment changes.

As you read the rest of this manual, keep in mind the keyword SURVIVAL and the need for a survival pattern.


PSYCHOLOGY OF SURVIVAL



     It takes much more than the knowledge and skills to build shelters, get food, make fires, and travel
     without the aid of standard navigational devices to live successfully through a survival situation. Some
     people with little or no survival training have managed to survive life-threatening circumstances. Some
     people with survival training have not used their skills and died. A key ingredient in any survival situation
     is the mental attitude of the individual(s) involved. Having survival skills is important; having the will to
     survive is essential. Without a desk to survive, acquired skills serve little purpose and invaluable
     knowledge goes to waste.

     There is a psychology to survival. The soldier in a survival environment faces many stresses that
     ultimately impact on his mind. These stresses can produce thoughts and emotions that, if poorly
     understood, can transform a confident, well-trained soldier into an indecisive, ineffective individual with
     questionable ability to survive. Thus, every soldier must be aware of and be able to recognize those
     stresses commonly associated with survival. Additionally, it is imperative that soldiers be aware of their
     reactions to the wide variety of stresses associated with survival. This chapter will identify and explain the
     nature of stress, the stresses of survival, and those internal reactions soldiers will naturally experience
     when faced with the stresses of a real-world survival situation. The knowledge you, the soldier, gain from
     this chapter and other chapters in this manual, will prepare you to come through the toughest times alive.

                                     A LOOK AT STRESS

Before we can understand our psychological reactions in a survival setting, it is helpful to first know a little bit about stress.

Stress is not a disease that you cure and eliminate. Instead, it is a condition we all experience. Stress can be described as our
reaction to pressure. It is the name given to the experience we have as we physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually
respond to life's tensions.

Need for Stress

We need stress because it has many positive benefits. Stress provides us with challenges; it gives us chances to learn about our
values and strengths. Stress can show our ability to handle pressure without breaking; it tests our adaptability and flexibility; it
can stimulate us to do our best. Because we usually do not consider unimportant events stressful, stress can also be an excellent
indicator of the significance we attach to an event--in other words, it highlights what is important to us.

We need to have some stress in our lives, but too much of anything can be bad. The goal is to have stress, but not an excess of
it. Too much stress can take its toll on people and organizations. Too much stress leads to distress. Distress causes an
uncomfortable tension that we try to escape and, preferably, avoid. Listed below are a few of the common signs of distress you
may find in your fellow soldiers or yourself when faced with too much stress:

     Difficulty making decisions.

     Angry outbursts.

     Forgetfulness.

     Low energy level.

     Constant worrying.

     Propensity for mistakes.

     Thoughts about death or suicide.

     Trouble getting along with others.

     Withdrawing from others.

     Hiding from responsibilities.

     Carelessness.

As you can see, stress can be constructive or destructive. It can encourage or discourage, move us along or stop us dead in our
tracks, and make life meaningful or seemingly meaningless. Stress can inspire you to operate successfully and perform at your
maximum efficiency in a survival situation. It can also cause you to panic and forget all your training. Key to your survival is your
ability to manage the inevitable stresses you will encounter. The survivor is the soldier who works with his stresses instead of
letting his stresses work on him.

Survival Stressors

Any event can lead to stress and, as everyone has experienced, events don't always come one at a time. Often, stressful events
occur simultaneously. These events are not stress, but they produce it and are called "stressors." Stressors are the obvious
cause while stress is the response. Once the body recognizes the presence of a stressor, it then begins to act to protect itself.

In response to a stressor, the body prepares either to "fight or flee." This preparation involves an internal SOS sent throughout
the body. As the body responds to this SOS, several actions take place. The body releases stored fuels (sugar and fats) to
provide quick energy; breathing rate increases to supply more oxygen to the blood; muscle tension increases to prepare for
action; blood clotting mechanisms are activated to reduce bleeding from cuts; senses become more acute (hearing becomes
more sensitive, eyes become big, smell becomes sharper) so that you are more aware of your surrounding and heart rate and
blood pressure rise to provide more blood to the muscles. This protective posture lets a person cope with potential dangers;
however, a person cannot maintain such a level of alertness indefinitely.

Stressors are not courteous; one stressor does not leave because another one arrives. Stressors add up. The cumulative effect
of minor stressors can be a major distress if they all happen too close together. As the body's resistance to stress wears down
and the sources of stress continue (or increase), eventually a state of exhaustion arrives. At this point, the ability to resist stress
or use it in a positive way gives out and signs of distress appear. Anticipating stressors and developing strategies to cope with
them are two ingredients in the effective management of stress. It is therefore essential that the soldier in a survival setting be
aware of the types of stressors he will encounter. Let's take a look at a few of these.

Injury, Illness, or Death

Injury, illness, and death are real possibilities a survivor has to face. Perhaps nothing is more stressful than being alone in an
unfamiliar environment where you could die from hostile action, an accident, or from eating something lethal. Illness and injury
can also add to stress by limiting your ability to maneuver, get food and drink, find shelter, and defend yourself. Even if illness
and injury don't lead to death, they add to stress through the pain and discomfort they generate. It is only by con-trolling the
stress associated with the vulnerability to injury, illness, and death that a soldier can have the courage to take the risks
associated with survival tasks.

Uncertainly and Lack of Control

Some people have trouble operating in settings where everything is not clear-cut. The only guarantee in a survival situation is
that nothing is guaranteed. It can be extremely stressful operating on limited information in a setting where you have limited
control of your surroundings. This uncertainty and lack of control also add to the stress of being ill, injured, or killed.

Environment

Even under the most ideal circumstances, nature is quite formidable. In survival, a soldier will have to contend with the stressors
of weather, terrain, and the variety of creatures inhabiting an area. Heat, cold, rain, winds, mountains, swamps, deserts, insects,
dangerous reptiles, and other animals are just a few of the challenges awaiting the soldier working to survive. Depending on
how a soldier handles the stress of his environment, his surroundings can be either a source of food and protection or can be a
cause of extreme discomfort leading to injury, illness, or death.

Hunger and Thirst

Without food and water a person will weaken and eventually die. Thus, getting and preserving food and water takes on
increasing importance as the length of time in a survival setting increases. For a soldier used to having his provisions issued,
foraging can be a big source of stress.

Fatigue

Forcing yourself to continue surviving is not easy as you grow more tired. It is possible to become so fatigued that the act of
just staying awake is stressful in itself.

Isolation

There are some advantages to facing adversity with others. As soldiers we learn individual skills, but we train to function as part
of a team. Although we, as soldiers, complain about higher headquarters, we become used to the information and guidance it
provides, especially during times of confusion. Being in contact with others also provides a greater sense of security and a
feeling someone is available to help if problems occur. A significant stressor in survival situations is that often a person or team
has to rely solely on its own resources.

The survival stressors mentioned in this section are by no means the only ones you may face. Remember, what is stressful to
one person may not be stressful to another. Your experiences, training, personal outlook on life, physical and mental
conditioning, and level of self-confidence contribute to what you will find stressful in a survival environment. The object is not to
avoid stress, but rather to manage the stressors of survival and make them work for you.

We now have a general knowledge of stress and the stressors common to survival; the next step is to examine our reactions to
the stressors we may face.

                                   NATURAL REACTIONS

Man has been able to survive many shifts in his environment throughout the centuries. His ability to adapt physically and
mentally to a changing world kept him alive while other species around him gradually died off. The same survival mechanisms
that kept our forefathers alive can help keep us alive as well! However, these survival mechanisms that can help us can also
work against us if we don't understand and anticipate their presence.

It is not surprising that the average person will have some psychological reactions in a survival situation. We will now examine
some of the major internal reactions you and anyone with you might experience with the survival stressors addressed in the
earlier paragraphs. Let's begin.

Fear

Fear is our emotional response to dangerous circumstances that we believe have the potential to cause death, injury, or illness.
This harm is not just limited to physical damage; the threat to one's emotional and mental well-being can generate fear as well.
For the soldier trying to survive, fear can have a positive function if it encourages him to be cautious in situations where
recklessness could result in injury. Unfortunately, fear can also immobilize a person. It can cause him to become so frightened
that he fails to perform activities essential for survival. Most soldiers will have some degree of fear when placed in unfamiliar
surroundings under adverse conditions. There is no shame in this! Each soldier must train himself not to be overcome by his
fears. Ideally, through realistic training, we can acquire the knowledge and skills needed to increase our confidence and thereby
manage our fears.

Anxiety

Associated with fear is anxiety. Because it is natural for us to be afraid, it is also natural for us to experience anxiety. Anxiety
can be an uneasy, apprehensive feeling we get when faced with dangerous situations (physical, mental, and emotional). When
used in a healthy way, anxiety urges us to act to end, or at least master, the dangers that threaten our existence. If we were
never anxious, there would be little motivation to make changes in our lives. The soldier in a survival setting reduces his anxiety
by performing those tasks that will ensure his coming through the ordeal alive. As he reduces his anxiety, the soldier is also
bringing under control the source of that anxiety--his fears. In this form, anxiety is good; however, anxiety can also have a
devastating impact. Anxiety can overwhelm a soldier to the point where he becomes easily confused and has difficulty thinking.
Once this happens, it becomes more and more difficult for him to make good judgments and sound decisions. To survive, the
soldier must learn techniques to calm his anxieties and keep them in the range where they help, not hurt.

Anger and Frustration

Frustration arises when a person is continually thwarted in his attempts to reach a goal. The goal of survival is to stay alive until
you can reach help or until help can reach you. To achieve this goal, the soldier must complete some tasks with minimal
resources. It is inevitable, in trying to do these tasks, that something will go wrong; that something will happen beyond the
soldier's control; and that with one's life at stake, every mistake is magnified in terms of its importance. Thus, sooner or later,
soldiers will have to cope with frustration when a few of their plans run into trouble. One outgrowth of this frustration is anger.
There are many events in a survival situation that can frustrate or anger a soldier. Getting lost, damaged or forgotten equipment,
the weather, inhospitable terrain, enemy patrols, and physical limitations are just a few sources of frustration and anger.
Frustration and anger encourage impulsive reactions, irrational behavior, poorly thought-out decisions, and, in some instances,
an "I quit" attitude (people sometimes avoid doing something they can't master). If the soldier can harness and properly channel
the emotional intensity associated with anger and frustration, he can productively act as he answers the challenges of survival. If
the soldier does not properly focus his angry feelings, he can waste much energy in activities that do little to further either his
chances of survival or the chances of those around him.

Depression

It would be a rare person indeed who would not get sad, at least momentarily, when faced with the privations of survival. As
this sadness deepens, we label the feeling "depression." Depression is closely linked with frustration and anger. The frustrated
person becomes more and more angry as he fails to reach his goals. If the anger does not help the person to succeed, then the
frustration level goes even higher. A destructive cycle between anger and frustration continues until the person becomes worn
down-physically, emotionally, and mentally. When a person reaches this point, he starts to give up, and his focus shifts from
"What can I do" to "There is nothing I can do." Depression is an expression of this hopeless, helpless feeling. There is nothing
wrong with being sad as you temporarily think about your loved ones and remember what life is like back in "civilization" or "the
world." Such thoughts, in fact, can give you the desire to try harder and live one more day. On the other hand, if you allow
yourself to sink into a depressed state, then it can sap all your energy and, more important, your will to survive. It is imperative
that each soldier resist succumbing to depression.

Loneliness and Boredom

Man is a social animal. This means we, as human beings, enjoy the company of others. Very few people want to be alone all
the time! As you are aware, there is a distinct chance of isolation in a survival setting. This is not bad. Loneliness and boredom
can bring to the surface qualities you thought only others had. The extent of your imagination and creativity may surprise you.
When required to do so, you may discover some hidden talents and abilities. Most of all, you may tap into a reservoir of inner
strength and fortitude you never knew you had. Conversely, loneliness and boredom can be another source of depression. As a
soldier surviving alone, or with others, you must find ways to keep your mind productively occupied. Additionally, you must
develop a degree of self-sufficiency. You must have faith in your capability to "go it alone."

Guilt

The circumstances leading to your being in a survival setting are sometimes dramatic and tragic. It may be the result of an
accident or military mission where there was a loss of life. Perhaps you were the only, or one of a few, survivors. While
naturally relieved to be alive, you simultaneously may be mourning the deaths of others who were less fortunate. It is not
uncommon for survivors to feel guilty about being spared from death while others were not. This feeling, when used in a positive
way, has encouraged people to try harder to survive with the belief they were allowed to live for some greater purpose in life.
Sometimes, survivors tried to stay alive so that they could carry on the work of those killed. Whatever reason you give yourself,
do not let guilt feelings prevent you from living. The living who abandon their chance to survive accomplish nothing. Such an act
would be the greatest tragedy.

                                   PREPARING YOURSELF

Your mission as a soldier in a survival situation is to stay alive. As you can see, you are going to experience an assortment of
thoughts and emotions. These can work for you, or they can work to your downfall. Fear, anxiety, anger, frustration, guilt,
depression, and loneliness are all possible reactions to the many stresses common to survival. These reactions, when controlled
in a healthy way, help to increase a soldier's likelihood of surviving. They prompt the soldier to pay more attention in training, to
fight back when scared, to take actions that ensure sustenance and security, to keep faith with his fellow soldiers, and to strive
against large odds. When the survivor cannot control these reactions in a healthy way, they can bring him to a standstill. Instead
of rallying his internal resources, the soldier listens to his internal fears. This soldier experiences psychological defeat long before
he physically succumbs. Remember, survival is natural to everyone; being unexpectedly thrust into the life and death struggle of
survival is not. Don't be afraid of your "natural reactions to this unnatural situation." Prepare yourself to rule over these reactions
so they serve your ultimate interest--staying alive with the honor and dignity associated with being an American soldier.

It involves preparation to ensure that your reactions in a survival setting are productive, not destructive. The challenge of
survival has produced countless examples of heroism, courage, and self-sacrifice. These are the qualities it can bring out in you
if you have prepared yourself. Below are a few tips to help prepare yourself psychologically for survival. Through studying this
manual and attending survival training you can develop the survival attitude.

Know Yourself

Through training, family, and friends take the time to discover who you are on the inside. Strengthen your stronger qualities and
develop the areas that you know are necessary to survive.

Anticipate Fears

Don't pretend that you will have no fears. Begin thinking about what would frighten you the most if forced to survive alone.
Train in those areas of concern to you. The goal is not to eliminate the fear, but to build confidence in your ability to function
despite your fears.

Be Realistic

Don't be afraid to make an honest appraisal of situations. See circumstances as they are, not as you want them to be. Keep
your hopes and expectations within the estimate of the situation. When you go into a survival setting with unrealistic
expectations, you may be laying the groundwork for bitter disappointment. Follow the adage, "Hope for the best, prepare for
the worst." It is much easier to adjust to pleasant surprises about one's unexpected good fortunes than to be upset by one's
unexpected harsh circumstances.

Adopt a Positive Attitude

Learn to see the potential good in everything. Looking for the good not only boosts morale, it also is excellent for exercising
your imagination and creativity.

Remind Yourself What Is at Stake

Remember, failure to prepare yourself psychologically to cope with survival leads to reactions such as depression, carelessness,
inattention, loss of confidence, poor decision-making, and giving up before the body gives in. At stake is your life and the lives
of others who are depending on you to do your share.

Train

Through military training and life experiences, begin today to prepare yourself to cope with the rigors of survival. Demonstrating
your skills in training will give you the confidence to call upon them should the need arise. Remember, the more realistic the
training, the less overwhelming an actual survival setting will be.

Learn Stress Management Techniques

People under stress have a potential to panic if they are not well-trained and not prepared psychologically to face whatever the
circumstances may be. While we often cannot control the survival circumstances in which we find ourselves, it is within our
ability to control our response to those circumstances. Learning stress management techniques can enhance significantly your
capability to remain calm and focused as you work to keep yourself and others alive. A few good techniques to develop
include relaxation skills, time management skills, assertiveness skills, and cognitive restructuring skills (the ability to control how
you view a situation).

Remember, "the will to survive" can also be considered to be "the refusal to give up."





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                                        CHAPTER 3


                SURVIVAL PLANNING AND SURVIVAL KITS



     Survival planning is nothing more than realizing something could happen that would put you in a survival
     situation and, with that in mind, taking steps to increase your chances of survival. Thus, survival planning
     means preparation.

     Preparation means having survival items and knowing how to use them People who live in snow regions
     prepare their vehicles for poor road conditions. They put snow tires on their vehicles, add extra weight in
     the back for traction, and they carry a shovel, salt, and a blanket. Another example of preparation is
     finding the emergency exits on an aircraft when you board it for a flight. Preparation could also mean
     knowing your intended route of travel and familiarizing yourself with the area. Finally, emergency
     planning is essential.

                                IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING

Detailed prior planning is essential in potential survival situations. Including survival considerations in mission planning will
enhance your chances of survival if an emergency occurs. For example, if your job re-quires that you work in a small, enclosed
area that limits what you can carry on your person, plan where you can put your rucksack or your load-bearing equipment. Put
it where it will not prevent you from getting out of the area quickly, yet where it is readily accessible.

One important aspect of prior planning is preventive medicine. Ensuring that you have no dental problems and that your
immunizations are current will help you avoid potential dental or health problems. A dental problem in a survival situation will
reduce your ability to cope with other problems that you face. Failure to keep your shots current may mean your body is not
immune to diseases that are prevalent in the area.

Preparing and carrying a survival kit is as important as the considerations mentioned above. All Army aircraft normally have
survival kits on board for the type area(s) over which they will fly. There are kits for over-water survival, for hot climate
survival, and an aviator survival vest (see Appendix A for a description of these survival kits and their contents). If you are not
an aviator, you will probably not have access to the survival vests or survival kits. However, if you know what these kits
contain, it will help you to plan and to prepare your own survival kit.

Even the smallest survival kit, if properly prepared, is invaluable when faced with a survival problem. Before making your
survival kit, however, consider your unit's mission, the operational environment, and the equipment and vehicles assigned to
your unit.

                                       SURVIVAL KITS

The environment is the key to the types of items you will need in your survival kit. How much equipment you put in your kit
depends on how you will carry the kit. A kit carried on your body will have to be smaller than one carried in a vehicle. Always
layer your survival kit, keeping the most important items on your body. For example, your map and compass should always be
on your body. Carry less important items on your load-bearing equipment. Place bulky items in the rucksack.

In preparing your survival kit, select items you can use for more than one purpose. If you have two items that will serve the
same function, pick the one you can use for another function. Do not duplicate items, as this increases your kit's size and
weight.

Your survival kit need not be elaborate. You need only functional items that will meet your needs and a case to hold the items.
For the case, you might want to use a Band-Aid box, a first aid case, an ammunition pouch, or another suitable case. This case
should be--

     Water repellent or waterproof.

     Easy to carry or attach to your body.

     Suitable to accept varisized components.

     Durable.

In your survival kit, you should have--

     First aid items.

     Water purification tablets or drops.

     Fire starting equipment.

     Signaling items.

     Food procurement items.

     Shelter items.

Some examples of these items are--

     Lighter, metal match, waterproof matches.

     Snare wire.

     Signaling mirror.

     Wrist compass.

     Fish and snare line.

     Fishhooks.

     Candle.

     Small hand lens.

     Oxytetracycline tablets (diarrhea or infection).

     Water purification tablets.

     Solar blanket.

     Surgical blades.

     Butterfly sutures.

     Condoms for water storage.

     Chap Stick.

     Needle and thread.

     Knife.

Include a weapon only if the situation so dictates. Read about and practice the survival techniques in this manual. Consider your
unit's mission and the environment in which your unit will operate. Then prepare your survival kit.

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                                        CHAPTER 4


                           BASIC SURVIVAL MEDICINE

                                                          

     Foremost among the many problems that can compromise a survivor's ability to return to safety are
     medical problems resulting from parachute descent and landing, extreme climates, ground combat,
     evasion, and illnesses contracted in captivity.

     Many evaders and survivors have reported difficulty in treating injuries and illness due to the lack of
     training and medical supplies. For some, this led to capture or surrender.

     Survivors have related feeling of apathy and helplessness because they could not treat themselves in this
     environment. The ability to treat themselves increased their morale and cohesion and aided in their
     survival and eventual return to friendly forces.

     One man with a fair amount of basic medical knowledge can make a difference in the lives of many.
     Without qualified medical personnel available, it is you who must know what to do to stay alive.

                     REQUIREMENTS FOR MAINTENANCE OF HEALTH

To survive, you need water and food. You must also have and apply high personal hygiene standards.

Water

Your body loses water through normal body processes (sweating, urinating, and defecating). During average daily exertion
when the atmospheric temperature is 20 degrees Celsius (C) (68 degrees Fahrenheit), the average adult loses and therefore
requires 2 to 3 liters of water daily. Other factors, such as heat exposure, cold exposure, intense activity, high altitude, burns, or
illness, can cause your body to lose more water. You must replace this water.

Dehydration results from inadequate replacement of lost body fluids. It decreases your efficiency and, if injured, increases your
susceptibility to severe shock. Consider the following results of body fluid loss:

     A 5 percent loss of body fluids results in thirst, irritability, nausea, and weakness.

     A 10 percent loss results in dizziness, headache, inability to walk, and a tingling sensation in the limbs.

     A 15 percent loss results in dim vision, painful urination, swollen tongue, deafness, and a numb feeling in the skin.

     A loss greater than 15 percent of body fluids may result in death.

The most common signs and symptoms of dehydration are--

     Dark urine with a very strong odor.

     Low urine output.

     Dark, sunken eyes.

     Fatigue.

     Emotional instability.

     Loss of skin elasticity.

     Delayed capillary refill in fingernail beds.

     Trench line down center of tongue.

     Thirst. Last on the list because you are already 2 percent dehydrated by the time you crave fluids.

You replace the water as you lose it. Trying to make up a deficit is difficult in a survival situation, and thirst is not a sign of how
much water you need.

Most people cannot comfortably drink more than 1 liter of water at a time. So, even when not thirsty, drink small amounts of
water at regular intervals each hour to prevent dehydration.

If you are under physical and mental stress or subject to severe conditions, increase your water intake. Drink enough liquids to
maintain a urine output of at least 0.5 liter every 24 hours.

In any situation where food intake is low, drink 6 to 8 liters of water per day. In an extreme climate, especially an arid one, the
average person can lose 2.5 to 3.5 liters of water per hour. In this type of climate, you should drink 14 to 30 liters of water per
day.

With the loss of water there is also a loss of electrolytes (body salts). The average diet can usually keep up with these losses
but in an extreme situation or illness, additional sources need to be provided. A mixture of 0.25 teaspoon of salt to 1 liter of
water will provide a concentration that the body tissues can readily absorb.

Of all the physical problems encountered in a survival situation, the loss of water is the most preventable. The following are
basic guidelines for the prevention of dehydration:

     Always drink water when eating. Water is used and consumed as a part of the digestion process and can lead to
     dehydration.

     Acclimatize. The body performs more efficiently in extreme conditions when acclimatized.

     Conserve sweat not water. Limit sweat-producing activities but drink water.

     Ration water. Until you find a suitable source, ration your water sensibly. A daily intake of 500 cubic centimeter (0.5
     liter) of a sugar-water mixture (2 teaspoons per liter) will suffice to prevent severe dehydration for at least a week,
     provided you keep water losses to a minimum by limiting activity and heat gain or loss.

You can estimate fluid loss by several means. A standard field dressing holds about 0.25 liter (one-fourth canteen) of blood. A
soaked T-shirt holds 0.5 to 0.75 liter.

You can also use the pulse and breathing rate to estimate fluid loss. Use the following as a guide:

     With a 0.75 liter loss the wrist pulse rate will be under 100 beats per minute and the breathing rate 12 to 20 breaths per
     minute.

     With a 0.75 to 1.5 liter loss the pulse rate will be 100 to 120 beats per minute and 20 to 30 breaths per minute.

     With a 1.5 to 2 liter loss the pulse rate will be 120 to 140 beats per minute and 30 to 40 breaths per minute. Vital signs
     above these rates require more advanced care.

Food

Although you can live several weeks without food, you need an adequate amount to stay healthy. Without food your mental and
physical capabilities will deteriorate rapidly, and you will become weak. Food replenishes the substances that your body burns
and provides energy. It provides vitamins, minerals, salts, and other elements essential to good health. Possibly more important,
it helps morale.

The two basic sources of food are plants and animals (including fish). In varying degrees both provide the calories,
carbohydrates, fats, and proteins needed for normal daily body functions.

Calories are a measure of heat and potential energy. The average person needs 2,000 calories per day to function at a minimum
level. An adequate amount of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins without an adequate caloric intake will lead to starvation and
cannibalism of the body's own tissue for energy.

Plant Foods

These foods provide carbohydrates--the main source of energy. Many plants provide enough protein to keep the body at
normal efficiency. Although plants may not provide a balanced diet, they will sustain you even in the arctic, where meat's
heat-producing qualities are normally essential. Many plant foods such as nuts and seeds will give you enough protein and oils
for normal efficiency. Roots, green vegetables, and plant food containing natural sugar will provide calories and carbohydrates
that give the body natural energy.

The food value of plants becomes more and more important if you are eluding the enemy or if you are in an area where wildlife
is scarce. For instance--

     You can dry plants by wind, air, sun, or fire. This retards spoilage so that you can store or carry the plant food with you
     to use when needed.

     You can obtain plants more easily and more quietly than meat. This is extremely important when the enemy is near.

Animal Foods

Meat is more nourishing than plant food. In fact, it may even be more readily available in some places. However, to get meat,
you need to know the habits of, and how to capture, the various wildlife.

To satisfy your immediate food needs, first seek the more abundant and more easily obtained wildlife, such as insects,
crustaceans, mollusks, fish, and reptiles. These can satisfy your immediate hunger while you are preparing traps and snares for
larger game.

Personal Hygiene

In any situation, cleanliness is an important factor in preventing infection and disease. It becomes even more important in a
survival situation. Poor hygiene can reduce your chances of survival.

A daily shower with hot water and soap is ideal, but you can stay clean without this luxury. Use a cloth and soapy water to
wash yourself. Pay special attention to the feet, armpits, crotch, hands, and hair as these are prime areas for infestation and
infection. If water is scarce, take an "air" bath. Remove as much of your clothing as practical and expose your body to the sun
and air for at least 1 hour. Be careful not to sunburn.

If you don't have soap, use ashes or sand, or make soap from animal fat and wood ashes, if your situation allows. To make
soap--

     Extract grease from animal fat by cutting the fat into small pieces and cooking them in a pot.

     Add enough water to the pot to keep the fat from sticking as it cooks.

     Cook the fat slowly, stirring frequently.

     After the fat is rendered, pour the grease into a container to harden.

     Place ashes in a container with a spout near the bottom.

     Pour water over the ashes and collect the liquid that drips out of the spout in a separate container. This liquid is the
     potash or lye. Another way to get the lye is to pour the slurry (the mixture of ashes and water) through a straining cloth.

     In a cooking pot, mix two parts grease to one part potash.

     Place this mixture over a fire and boil it until it thickens.

After the mixture--the soap--cools, you can use it in the semiliquid state directly from the pot. You can also pour it into a pan,
allow it to harden, and cut it into bars for later use.

Keep Your Hands Clean

Germs on your hands can infect food and wounds. Wash your hands after handling any material that is likely to carry germs,
after visiting the latrine, after caring for the sick, and before handling any food, food utensils, or drinking water. Keep your
fingernails closely trimmed and clean, and keep your fingers out of your mouth.

Keep Your Hair Clean

Your hair can become a haven for bacteria or fleas, lice, and other parasites. Keeping your hair clean, combed, and trimmed
helps you avoid this danger.

Keep Your Clothing Clean

Keep your clothing and bedding as clean as possible to reduce the chance of skin infection as well as to decrease the danger of
parasitic infestation. Clean your outer clothing whenever it becomes soiled. Wear clean underclothing and socks each day. If
water is scarce, "air" clean your clothing by shaking, airing, and sunning it for 2 hours. If you are using a sleeping bag, turn it
inside out after each use, fluff it, and air it.

Keep Your Teeth Clean

Thoroughly clean your mouth and teeth with a toothbrush at least once each day. If you don't have a toothbrush, make a
chewing stick. Find a twig about 20 centimeters long and 1 centimeter wide. Chew one end of the stick to separate the fibers.
Now brush your teeth thoroughly. Another way is to wrap a clean strip of cloth around your fingers and rub your teeth with it to
wipe away food particles. You can also brush your teeth with small amounts of sand, baking soda, salt, or soap. Then rinse
your mouth with water, salt water, or willow bark tea. Also, flossing your teeth with string or fiber helps oral hygiene.

If you have cavities, you can make temporary fillings by placing candle wax, tobacco, aspirin, hot pepper, tooth paste or
powder, or portions of a ginger root into the cavity. Make sure you clean the cavity by rinsing or picking the particles out of the
cavity before placing a filling in the cavity.

Take Care of Your Feet

To prevent serious foot problems, break in your shoes before wearing them on any mission. Wash and massage your feet daily.
Trim your toenails straight across. Wear an insole and the proper size of dry socks. Powder and check your feet daily for
blisters.

If you get a small blister, do not open it. An intact blister is safe from infection. Apply a padding material around the blister to
relieve pressure and reduce friction. If the blister bursts, treat it as an open wound. Clean and dress it daily and pad around it.
Leave large blisters intact. To avoid having the blister burst or tear under pressure and cause a painful and open sore, do the
following:

     Obtain a sewing-type needle and a clean or sterilized thread.

     Run the needle and thread through the blister after cleaning the blister.

     Detach the needle and leave both ends of the thread hanging out of the blister. The thread will absorb the liquid inside.
     This reduces the size of the hole and ensures that the hole does not close up.

     Pad around the blister.

Get Sufficient Rest

You need a certain amount of rest to keep going. Plan for regular rest periods of at least 10 minutes per hour during your daily
activities. Learn to make yourself comfortable under less than ideal conditions. A change from mental to physical activity or vice
versa can be refreshing when time or situation does not permit total relaxation.

Keep Camp Site Clean

Do not soil the ground in the camp site area with urine or feces. Use latrines, if available. When latrines are not available, dig
"cat holes" and cover the waste. Collect drinking water upstream from the camp site. Purify all water.

                                  MEDICAL EMERGENCIES

Medical problems and emergencies you may be faced with include breathing problems, severe bleeding, and shock.

Breathing Problems

Any one of the following can cause airway obstruction, resulting in stopped breathing:

     Foreign matter in mouth of throat that obstructs the opening to the trachea.

     Face or neck injuries.

     Inflammation and swelling of mouth and throat caused by inhaling smoke, flames, and irritating vapors or by an allergic
     reaction.

     "Kink" in the throat (caused by the neck bent forward so that the chin rests upon the chest) may block the passage of air.

     Tongue blocks passage of air to the lungs upon unconsciousness. When an individual is unconscious, the muscles of the
     lower jaw and tongue relax as the neck drops forward, causing the lower jaw to sag and the tongue to drop back and
     block the passage of air.

Severe Bleeding

Severe bleeding from any major blood vessel in the body is extremely dangerous. The loss of 1 liter of blood will produce
moderate symptoms of shock. The loss of 2 liters will produce a severe state of shock that places the body in extreme danger.
The loss of 3 liters is usually fatal.

Shock

Shock (acute stress reaction) is not a disease in itself. It is a clinical condition characterized by symptoms that arise when
cardiac output is insufficient to fill the arteries with blood under enough pressure to provide an adequate blood supply to the
organs and tissues.

                                      LIFESAVING STEPS

Control panic, both your own and the victim's. Reassure him and try to keep him quiet.

Perform a rapid physical exam. Look for the cause of the injury and follow the ABCs of first aid, starting with the airway and
breathing, but be discerning. A person may die from arterial bleeding more quickly than from an airway obstruction in some
cases.

Open Airway and Maintain

You can open an airway and maintain it by using the following steps.

Step 1. Check if the victim has a partial or complete airway obstruction. If he can cough or speak, allow him to clear the
obstruction naturally. Stand by, reassure the victim, and be ready to clear his airway and perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation
should he become unconscious. If his airway is completely obstructed, administer abdominal thrusts until the obstruction is
cleared.

Step 2. Using a finger, quickly sweep the victim's mouth clear of any foreign objects, broken teeth, dentures, sand.

Step 3. Using the jaw thrust method, grasp the angles of the victim's lower jaw and lift with both hands, one on each side,
moving the jaw forward. For stability, rest your elbows on the surface on which the victim is lying. If his lips are closed, gently
open the lower lip with your thumb (Figure 4-1).



Step 4. With the victim's airway open, pinch his nose closed with your thumb and forefinger and blow two complete breaths
into his lungs. Allow the lungs to deflate after the second inflation and perform the following:

     Look for his chest to rise and fall.

     Listen for escaping air during exhalation.

     Feel for flow of air on your cheek.

Step 5. If the forced breaths do not stimulate spontaneous breathing, maintain the victim's breathing by performing
mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.

Step 6. There is danger of the victim vomiting during mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Check the victim's mouth periodically for
vomit and clear as needed.

     Note: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be necessary after cleaning the airway, but only after
     major bleeding is under control. See FM 21-20, the American Heart Association manual, the Red Cross
     manual, or most other first aid books for detailed instructions on CPR.

Control Bleeding

In a survival situation, you must control serious bleeding immediately because replacement fluids normally are not available and
the victim can die within a matter of minutes. External bleeding falls into the following classifications (according to its source):

     Arterial. Blood vessels called arteries carry blood away from the heart and through the body. A cut artery issues bright
     red blood from the wound in distinct spurts or pulses that correspond to the rhythm of the heartbeat. Because the
     blood in the arteries is under high pressure, an individual can lose a large volume of blood in a short period when damage
     to an artery of significant size occurs. Therefore, arterial bleeding is the most serious type of bleeding. If not controlled
     promptly, it can be fatal.

     Venous. Venous blood is blood that is returning to the heart through blood vessels called veins. A steady flow of dark
     red, maroon, or bluish blood characterizes bleeding from a vein. You can usually control venous bleeding more easily
     than arterial bleeding.

     Capillary. The capillaries are the extremely small vessels that connect the arteries with the veins. Capillary bleeding most
     commonly occurs in minor cuts and scrapes. This type of bleeding is not difficult to control.

You can control external bleeding by direct pressure, indirect (pressure points) pressure, elevation, digital ligation, or
tourniquet.

Direct Pressure

The most effective way to control external bleeding is by applying pressure directly over the wound. This pressure must not
only be firm enough to stop the bleeding, but it must also be maintained long enough to "seal off" the damaged surface.

If bleeding continues after having applied direct pressure for 30 minutes, apply a pressure dressing. This dressing consists of a
thick dressing of gauze or other suitable material applied directly over the wound and held in place with a tightly wrapped
bandage (Figure 4-2). It should be tighter than an ordinary compression bandage but not so tight that it impairs circulation to
the rest of the limb. Once you apply the dressing, do not remove it, even when the dressing becomes blood soaked.



Leave the pressure dressing in place for 1 or 2 days, after which you can remove and replace it with a smaller dressing.

In the long-term survival environment, make fresh, daily dressing changes and inspect for signs of infection.

Elevation

Raising an injured extremity as high as possible above the heart's level slows blood loss by aiding the return of blood to the
heart and lowering the blood pressure at the wound. However, elevation alone will not control bleeding entirely; you must also
apply direct pressure over the wound. When treating a snakebite, however, keep the extremity lower than the heart.

Pressure Points

A pressure point is a location where the main artery to the wound lies near the surface of the skin or where the artery passes
directly over a bony prominence (Figure 4-3). You can use digital pressure on a pressure point to slow arterial bleeding until
the application of a pressure dressing. Pressure point control is not as effective for controlling bleeding as direct pressure
exerted on the wound. It is rare when a single major compressible artery supplies a damaged vessel.



If you cannot remember the exact location of the pressure points, follow this rule: Apply pressure at the end of the joint just
above the injured area. On hands, feet, and head, this will be the wrist, ankle, and neck, respectively.

                                           WARNING

 Use caution when applying pressure to the neck. Too much pressure for too long may cause unconsciousness or
 death. Never place a tourniquet around the neck.


Maintain pressure points by placing a round stick in the joint, bending the joint over the stick, and then keeping it tightly bent by
lashing. By using this method to maintain pressure, it frees your hands to work in other areas.

Digital Ligation

You can stop major bleeding immediately or slow it down by applying pressure with a finger or two on the bleeding end of the
vein or artery. Maintain the pressure until the bleeding stops or slows down enough to apply a pressure bandage, elevation, and
so forth.

Tourniquet

Use a tourniquet only when direct pressure over the bleeding point and all other methods did not control the bleeding. If you
leave a tourniquet in place too long, the damage to the tissues can progress to gangrene, with a loss of the limb later. An
improperly applied tourniquet can also cause permanent damage to nerves and other tissues at the site of the constriction.

If you must use a tourniquet, place it around the extremity, between the wound and the heart, 5 to 10 centimeters above the
wound site (Figure 4-4). Never place it directly over the wound or a fracture. Use a stick as a handle to tighten the tourniquet
and tighten it only enough to stop blood flow. When you have tightened the tourniquet, bind the free end of the stick to the limb
to prevent unwinding.



After you secure the tourniquet, clean and bandage the wound. A lone survivor does not remove or release an applied
tourniquet. In a buddy system, however, the buddy can release the tourniquet pressure every 10 to 15 minutes for 1 or 2
minutes to let blood flow to the rest of the extremity to prevent limb loss.

Prevent and Treat Shock

Anticipate shock in all injured personnel. Treat all injured persons as follows, regardless of what symptoms appear (Figure
4-5):

     If the victim is conscious, place him on a level surface with the lower extremities elevated 15 to 20 centimeters.

     If the victim is unconscious, place him on his side or abdomen with his head turned to one side to prevent choking on
     vomit, blood, or other fluids.

     If you are unsure of the best position, place the victim perfectly flat. Once the victim is in a shock position, do not move
     him.

     Maintain body heat by insulating the victim from the surroundings and, in some instances, applying external heat.

     If wet, remove all the victim's wet clothing as soon as possible and replace with dry clothing.

     Improvise a shelter to insulate the victim from the weather.

     Use warm liquids or foods, a prewarmed sleeping bag, another person, warmed water in canteens, hot rocks wrapped
     in clothing, or fires on either side of the victim to provide external warmth.

     If the victim is conscious, slowly administer small doses of a warm salt or sugar solution, if available.

     If the victim is unconscious or has abdominal wounds, do not give fluids by mouth.

     Have the victim rest for at least 24 hours.

     If you are a lone survivor, lie in a depression in the ground, behind a tree, or any other place out of the weather, with
     your head lower than your feet.

     If you are with a buddy, reassess your patient constantly.



                                  BONE AND JOINT INJURY

You could face bone and joint injuries that include fractures, dislocations, and sprains.

Fractures

There are basically two types of fractures: open and closed. With an open (or compound) fracture, the bone protrudes through
the skin and complicates the actual fracture with an open wound. After setting the fracture, treat the wound as any other open
wound.

The closed fracture has no open wounds. Follow the guidelines for immobilization, and set and splint the fracture.

The signs and symptoms of a fracture are pain, tenderness, discoloration, swelling deformity, loss of function, and grating (a
sound or feeling that occurs when broken bone ends rub together).

The dangers with a fracture are the severing or the compression of a nerve or blood vessel at the site of fracture. For this
reason minimum manipulation should be done, and only very cautiously. If you notice the area below the break becoming numb,
swollen, cool to the touch, or turning pale, and the victim shows signs of shock, a major vessel may have been severed. You
must control this internal bleeding. Rest the victim for shock, and replace lost fluids.

Often you must maintain traction during the splinting and healing process. You can effectively pull smaller bones such as the arm
or lower leg by hand. You can create traction by wedging a hand or foot in the V-notch of a tree and pushing against the tree
with the other extremity. You can then splint the break.

Very strong muscles hold a broken thighbone (femur) in place making it difficult to maintain traction during healing. You can
make an improvised traction splint using natural material (Figure 4-6) as follows:

     Get two forked branches or saplings at least 5 centimeters in diameter. Measure one from the patient's armpit to 20 to
     30 centimeters past his unbroken leg. Measure the other from the groin to 20 to 30 centimeters past the unbroken leg.
     Ensure that both extend an equal distance beyond the end of the leg.

     Pad the two splints. Notch the ends without forks and lash a 20- to 30-centimeter cross member made from a
     5-centimeter diameter branch between them.

     Using available material (vines, cloth, rawhide), tie the splint around the upper portion of the body and down the length
     of the broken leg. Follow the splinting guidelines.

     With available material, fashion a wrap that will extend around the ankle, with the two free ends tied to the cross
     member.

     Place a 10- by 2.5-centimeter stick in the middle of the free ends of the ankle wrap between the cross member and the
     foot. Using the stick, twist the material to make the traction easier.

     Continue twisting until the broken leg is as long or slightly longer than the unbroken leg.

     Lash the stick to maintain traction.

     Note: Over time you may lose traction because the material weakened. Check the traction periodically. If
     you must change or repair the splint, maintain the traction manually for a short time.



Dislocations

Dislocations are the separations of bone joints causing the bones to go out of proper alignment. These misalignments can be
extremely painful and can cause an impairment of nerve or circulatory function below the area affected. You must place these
joints back into alignment as quickly as possible.

Signs and symptoms of dislocations are joint pain, tenderness, swelling, discoloration, limited range of motion, and deformity of
the joint. You treat dislocations by reduction, immobilization, and rehabilitation.

Reduction or "setting" is placing the bones back into their proper alignment. You can use several methods, but manual traction
or the use of weights to pull the bones are the safest and easiest. Once performed, reduction decreases the victim's pain and
allows for normal function and circulation. Without an X ray, you can judge proper alignment by the look and feel of the joint
and by comparing it to the joint on the opposite side.

Immobilization is nothing more than splinting the dislocation after reduction. You can use any field-expedient material for a splint
or you can splint an extremity to the body. The basic guidelines for splinting are--

     Splint above and below the fracture site.

     Pad splints to reduce discomfort.

     Check circulation below the fracture after making each tie on the splint.

To rehabilitate the dislocation, remove the splints after 7 to 14 days. Gradually use the injured joint until fully healed.

Sprains

The accidental overstretching of a tendon or ligament causes sprains. The signs and symptoms are pain, swelling, tenderness,
and discoloration (black and blue).

When treating sprains, think RICE--

      R -
          Rest injured area.
      I   -
          Ice for 24 hours, then heat after that.
      C -
          Compression-wrapping and/or splinting to help stabilize. If possible, leave the boot on a sprained ankle unless
          circulation is compromised.
      E -
          Elevation of the affected area.


                                      BITES AND STINGS

Insects and related pests are hazards in a survival situation. They not only cause irritations, but they are often carriers of
diseases that cause severe allergic reactions in some individuals. In many parts of the world you will be exposed to serious,
even fatal, diseases not encountered in the United States.

Ticks can carry and transmit diseases, such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever common in many parts of the United States.
Ticks also transmit the Lyme disease.

Mosquitoes may carry malaria, dengue, and many other diseases.

Flies can spread disease from contact with infectious sources. They are causes of sleeping sickness, typhoid, cholera, and
dysentery.

Fleas can transmit plague.

Lice can transmit typhus and relapsing fever.

The best way to avoid the complications of insect bites and stings is to keep immunizations (including booster shots)
up-to-date, avoid insect-infested areas, use netting and insect repellent, and wear all clothing properly.

If you get bitten or stung, do not scratch the bite or sting, it might become infected. Inspect your body at least once a day to
ensure there are no insects attached to you. If you find ticks attached to your body, cover them with a substance, such as
Vaseline, heavy oil, or tree sap, that will cut off their air supply. Without air, the tick releases its hold, and you can remove it.
Take care to remove the whole tick. Use tweezers if you have them. Grasp the tick where the mouth parts are attached to the
skin. Do not squeeze the tick's body. Wash your hands after touching the tick. Clean the tick wound daily until healed.

Treatment

It is impossible to list the treatment of all the different types of bites and stings. Treat bites and stings as follows:

     If antibiotics are available for your use, become familiar with them before deployment and use them.

     Predeployment immunizations can prevent most of the common diseases carried by mosquitoes and some carried by
     flies.

     The common fly-borne diseases are usually treatable with penicillins or erythromycin.

     Most tick-, flea-, louse-, and mite-borne diseases are treatable with tetracycline.

     Most antibiotics come in 250 milligram (mg) or 500 mg tablets. If you cannot remember the exact dose rate to treat a
     disease, 2 tablets, 4 times a day for 10 to 14 days will usually kill any bacteria.

Bee and Wasp Stings

If stung by a bee, immediately remove the stinger and venom sac, if attached, by scraping with a fingernail or a knife blade. Do
not squeeze or grasp the stinger or venom sac, as squeezing will force more venom into the wound. Wash the sting site
thoroughly with soap and water to lessen the chance of a secondary infection.

If you know or su